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Learn more. It may not be suitable for agriculture, or suitable only for an activity which limits erosion. Surface cover is a major factor to control erosion because it reduces the impact of raindrops falling on bare soils and wind removing soil particles. It also reduces the speed of water flowing over the land. Total cover is achievable for many grazing and cropping systems.
Runoff concentrates as it flows downslope. By the time rivers draining large catchments reach the coast, they are usually just a few hundred meters wide. Even though surface cover encourages runoff to spread, runoff concentration is inevitable. Coordination across the catchment is important when implementing runoff control measures. Runoff may pass through several properties and cross several roads sometimes railway lines as it passes from the most remote part of a catchment to a major drainage line or creek.
The importance of cover was shown in an experiment at Mt Mort, near Ipswich see table below. The soil loss from this one event was 22 tonnes per hectare. Treatments A and B with higher cover levels had much less runoff, soil and nutrient loss.
It can take thousands of years to form an inch of soil. The depth of soil lost from treatment C from this one storm event may take hundreds of years to replace, provided no further erosion occurs. Trees are often considered to be the universal answer to control soil erosion. In forests, the soil surface is usually protected by a layer of mulch from decaying vegetation as well as a variety of surface growing plants. If the soil is bare under the tree canopy from over grazing, vehicles or pedestrians, soil erosion will still occur.
Conservation cropping practices that maintain cover on soils include minimum and zero tillage practices. Runoff concentration is managed by structural measures such as contour banks in upland areas, or strip cropping on floodplains. These systems involve a total change in the way a farm is managed.
Runoff systems must be carefully planned. Flow between properties and across roads and railway lines must be coordinated and suit those affected by the changes. When runoff water can impact neighbouring properties or infrastructure, land owners are encouraged to discuss with their neighbours and seek professional advice. The banks channel the runoff at low speed into grassed waterways. Good surface cover between contour banks and in waterways will ensure their stability and dramatically reduce the amount of soil deposited in waterways.
On flood plains, strip cropping is used to spread flood flows rather than allowing it to concentrate. This protects the soil from erosion by raindrop impact. This practice has been widely adopted in many Queensland cane growing districts. Surface cover is the key to erosion control in grazing lands. It prevents erosion by maintaining the soil so it can absorb rainfall. A well-managed pasture with good cover will ensure that runoff spreads rather than concentrates.
Bore drains, tracks, roads, cattle pads and fences concentrate runoff, so careful planning is required to ensure that property improvements are located where they will not contribute to erosion.
Ideally, this level of cover will exist at the beginning of the summer storm season. The ideal stocking rate is flexible, and stock numbers should match available feed. Regular monitoring of pastures is necessary to achieve this. Long-term weather forecasting, using predictive tools such as the Southern Oscillation Index SOI , has improved the options available for predicting droughts.
Opportunistic spelling should also be part of a grazing strategy. A total spell in a good year may be required to allow desirable grasses to recover from past grazing.
Grazing pressure can also be managed by locating watering points away from areas vulnerable to erosion. Fire is useful for controlling woody weeds but it needs to be managed carefully.
Regular burning of pastures will further reduce ground cover and promote runoff and erosion. Home Environment, land and water Land, housing and property Land and vegetation management Soil management Erosion Preventing and managing erosion.
Print Preventing and managing erosion Programs to control erosion in Queensland began in the s and have been very successful. Land capability Soil erosion can be avoided by using land within its capability. There are a number of resources to help determine how land should be used to avoid erosion: for cropping lands—land management field manuals map and describe the land types in many districts and provide advice on land use and management for each soil type.
These give graziers an indication of what soils their property may have and are a useful planning tool. Using land according to its capability: the steeper slopes and shallower soils suitable for growing pastures, and the lower slopes and deeper soils suitable for growing crops. Surface cover and runoff Surface cover is a major factor to control erosion because it reduces the impact of raindrops falling on bare soils and wind removing soil particles.
Experiment: the importance of cover The importance of cover was shown in an experiment at Mt Mort, near Ipswich see table below. Table 1. Results from a 54mm storm at Mt Mort. Erosion control in cropping lands Tillage Conservation cropping practices that maintain cover on soils include minimum and zero tillage practices. Contour banks and strip cropping Runoff concentration is managed by structural measures such as contour banks in upland areas, or strip cropping on floodplains.
Conservation cropping practices—a soybean crop planted directly into wheat stubble without any prior tillage. More information Read more about managing erosion in cropping lands: Erosion control in cropping land Soil conservation planning in cropping lands PDF, KB Runoff control measures for erosion control in cropping land Maintaining contour banks Contour bank specifications Controlled traffic farming—soil conservation considerations for extensive cropping Soil conservation waterways—planning and design Soil conservation waterways—construction and management Soil conservation waterways—plants for stabilisation.
Erosion control in grazing lands Surface cover Surface cover is the key to erosion control in grazing lands. Opportunistic spelling Opportunistic spelling should also be part of a grazing strategy. Fire Fire is useful for controlling woody weeds but it needs to be managed carefully. More information Read more about managing erosion in grazing lands: Erosion control in grazing lands Managing grazing lands in Queensland PDF, KB Managing for drought in grazing lands Erosion control on property roads and tracks—cross sections and locations Erosion control on property roads and tracks—managing runoff Erosion control on fences and fire breaks Managing stock in and around waterways PDF, KB.
Use of a sediment fence and grassed strips on a development near Sinnamon Park, Brisbane. Last updated: 18 December Last reviewed: 24 March Share this page: Facebook Twitter LinkedIn.
What is soil erosion and soil degradation? Although soil erosion is a natural process, human activities over the past decades have greatly accelerated it. In fact, according to the UNESCO , land degradation is undermining the well-being of two-fifths of humanity, driving species extinct and intensifying climate change. Soil erosion is a gradual process of movement and transport of the upper layer of soil topsoil by different agents — particularly water, wind, and mass movement — causing its deterioration in the long term. In other words, soil erosion is the removal of the most fertile top layer of soil through water, wind and tillage. Soil erosion is a consequence of unsustainable land use and other disturbances, such as fire, mining, or intensive agricultural uses. The loss of soil may have serious impacts on the quantity and quality of soil ecosystem services, with serious economic, social, and political implications.
Physics of desertification pp Cite as. Wind erosion is a serious problem in many parts of the world. It physically removes the most fertile portion of the soil from the field, pollutes the air, fills road ditches, reduces seedling survival and growth, and lowers the marketability of many vegetable crops. Wind erosion also creates new desert landforms and landscapes. Wind erosion is generally worse in arid and semiarid climates.
PDF | Soil erosion is a natural process in which particles of soil are The volume and rate of runoff from the project site and its upstream.
ANON. ORG У человека, назвавшегося Северной Дакотой, анонимные учетные данные, но Сьюзан знала, что это ненадолго. Следопыт проникнет в ARA, отыщет Северную Дакоту и сообщит истинный адрес этого человека в Интернете. Если все сложится нормально, она скоро выяснит местонахождение Северной Дакоты, и Стратмор конфискует ключ. Тогда дело будет только за Дэвидом. Когда он найдет копию ключа, имевшуюся у Танкадо, оба экземпляра будут уничтожены, а маленькая бомба с часовым механизмом, заложенная Танкадо, - обезврежена и превратится во взрывное устройство без детонатора.
Один гудок… два… три… Внезапно он увидел нечто, заставившее его бросить трубку. Беккер повернулся и еще раз оглядел больничную палату. В ней царила полная тишина. Прямо перед ним, откинувшись на груду старых подушек, лежал пожилой человек с ярко-белой гипсовой повязкой на правом запястье. ГЛАВА 21 Голос американца, звонившего Нуматаке по прямой линии, казался взволнованным: - Мистер Нуматака, в моем распоряжении не больше минуты.
Рыжие волосы, - повторил Беккер, понимая, как глупо выглядит.
Это цена, которую приходится платить за известность. - Действительно. - Клушар вздохнул с видом мученика, вынужденного терпеть всякий сброд.
Танкадо ни за что не доверился бы Хейлу. - Коммандер, - напомнила Сьюзан, - Хейл однажды уже чуть не угробил нас - с Попрыгунчиком.
Компьютерные вирусы столь же разнообразны, как и те, что поражают человека. Подобно своим природным аналогам они преследуют одну цель - внедриться в организм и начать размножаться. В данном случае организмом является ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
Даже если Беккер успеет спуститься вниз, ему все равно некуда бежать: Халохот выстрелит ему в спину, когда он будет пересекать Апельсиновый сад.
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