File Name: carbonate diagenesis and porosity ch moore .zip
The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of diagenetic processes as they affect carbonate grains and carbonate sediments, thus giving a foundation for other carbonate chapters. Post-depositional changes may begin upon the depositional substrate e. Subsequently, during burial, compaction, further dissolution, cementation, recrystallization and replacement may occur. Some of these processes lead to obvious changes but others are cryptic e. In this chapter marine phreatic, marine vadose, fresh-water vadose, fresh-water phreatic, mixing zone and deeper burial processes are reviewed. The use of isotopic and fluid-inclusion methods of analysis are illustrated in the context of particular case studies. Diagenetic changes in carbonate sediments are the record, very often imperfectly preserved, of successive fluid-rock interactions that have occurred during burial and uplift.
It is intended to give the working geologist and university graduate student a reasonable overview of carbonate diagenesis and its influence on the evolution of carbonate porosity. It starts with a discussion of the major differences between carbonates and siliciclastics so that the novice will have an appreciation of the basic nature of the carbonate system. Carbonate porosity, its nature and its classification is then discussed so that the relationship between diagenesis and porosity can be established. Environments of diagenesis and their characteristics are outlined, stressing the nature of pore fluids found in each environment. Tools for the recognition of these environments are then discussed with stress on the constraints suffered by each technique. Each major diagenetic environment is then discussed in detail with petrographic, geochemical characteristics outlined, and an in depth discussion of the impact of the environment's diagenetic processes on porosity development and evolution.
Consequences of biological influences over carbonate sediments. Sedimentary processes and depositional environments common to both carbonates and siliclastics. Carbonate rock classification. Sedimentary style - the ubiquitous carbonate shoaling upward sequence and cyclicity. Carbonate shelf evolution - response to sea level.
Microfacies of Carbonate Rocks pp Cite as. Diagenesis refers to physical, chemical and biological processes. The understanding of these processes and their products has high economic importance, because diagenetic criteria account for many of the petrophysical properties of carbonate rocks and determine their value as reservoir rocks and use in industry. Diagenetic studies require a combination of various methods, including standard optical petrography, cathodoluminescence, SEM observations, stable isotope analyses and rare element composition. The following text concentrates on diagenetic features that can be studied in thin sections. Comprehensive reviews of carbonate diagenesis can be found in textbooks listed under Basics in the reference list at the end of this chapter. Unable to display preview.
Chapter 1. The Nature of the Carbonate Depositional System. Origin of carbonate sediments. The reef: a unique depositional environment. Unique biological control over the texture and fabric of carbonate sediments. Carbonate grain composition.
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Carbonate Diagenesis and Porosity - 1st Edition - ISBN: , View on ScienceDirect Author: C.H. Moore. eBook ISBN.
Carbonate diagenesis is a subject of enormous complexity because of the basic chemical reactivity of carbonate minerals. These carbonate minerals react quickly with natural waters that either dissolve the carbonates, or precipitate new carbonates to bring the water into equilibrium with the host carbonate sediments and rocks. These rock-water interactions either create porosity by dissolution, or destroy porosity by the precipitation of carbonate cements into pore spaces. Carbonate Diagenesis and Porosity examines these important relationships in detail.
Xiao, Yitian, Jones, Gareth D. The accurate prediction of the geometry of subsurface dolomite geobodies, their connectivity, and the distribution of reservoir properties is a fundamental challenge in carbonate reservoir characterization. Reactive Transport Models RTM couple geochemical reactions with fluid flow to facilitate both 2D and 3D quantitative, process-based investigations of dolomitization and related carbonate diagenetic reactions. The paper will highlight new results and key conclusions from simulations of dolomitization mechanisms in four different hydro-geological systems: Brine reflux,.
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