and pdfWednesday, April 28, 2021 8:00:46 PM0

Primary And Secondary Data In Research Pdf

primary and secondary data in research pdf

File Name: primary and secondary data in research .zip
Size: 28445Kb
Published: 28.04.2021

Primary Sources of Data and Secondary Sources of Data

Research does not always involve collection of data from the participants. There is huge amount of data that is being collected through the routine management information system and other surveys or research activities. The existing data can be analyzed to generate new hypothesis or answer critical research questions. This saves lots of time, money and other resources. Also data from large sample surveys may be of higher quality and representative of the population.

However, there are certain ethical issues pertaining to secondary data analysis which should be taken care of before handling such data. Secondary analysis refers to the use of existing research data to find answer to a question that was different from the original work 2. Secondary data can be large scale surveys or data collected as part of personal research.

Although there is general agreement about sharing the results of large scale surveys, but little agreement exists about the second. While the fundamental ethical issues related to secondary use of research data remain the same, they have become more pressing with the advent of new technologies.

Data sharing, compiling and storage have become much faster and easier. At the same time, there are fresh concerns about data confidentiality and security. Concerns about secondary use of data mostly revolve around potential harm to individual subjects and issue of return for consent. Secondary data vary in terms of the amount of identifying information in it.

If the data has no identifying information or is completely devoid of such information or is appropriately coded so that the researcher does not have access to the codes, then it does not require a full review by the ethical board.

The board just needs to confirm that the data is actually anonymous. However, if the data contains identifying information on participants or information that could be linked to identify participants, a complete review of the proposal will then be made by the board.

If the above said concerns are satisfactorily addressed, the researcher can then request for a waiver of consent. If the data is freely available on the Internet, books or other public forum, permission for further use and analysis is implied.

However, the ownership of the original data must be acknowledged. If the research is part of another research project and the data is not freely available, except to the original research team, explicit, written permission for the use of the data must be obtained from the research team and included in the application for ethical clearance. However, there are certain other issues pertaining to the data that is procured for secondary analysis. The data obtained should be adequate, relevant but not excessive.

In secondary data analysis, the original data was not collected to answer the present research question. Thus the data should be evaluated for certain criteria such as the methodology of data collection, accuracy, period of data collection, purpose for which it was collected and the content of the data. It shall be kept for no longer than is necessary for that purpose.

It must be kept safe from unauthorized access, accidental loss or destruction. Data in the form of hardcopies should be kept in safe locked cabinets whereas softcopies should be kept as encrypted files in computers.

It is the responsibility of the researcher conducting the secondary analysis to ensure that further analysis of the data conducted is appropriate. In some cases there is provision for analysis of secondary data in the original consent form with the condition that the secondary study is approved by the ethics review committee.

However it also says that consent is not a once-and-for-all event, but is subject to renegotiation over time 3. It appears that there are no guidelines about the specific conditions that require further consent. In qualitative research, the culture of data archiving is absent 4.

However, the best practice is to plan anonymisation at the time of initial transcription. A log of all replacements, aggregations or removals should be made and stored separately from the anonymised data files. But because of the circumstances, under which qualitative data is produced, their reinterpretation at some later date can be challenging and raises further ethical concerns.

There is a need for formulating specific guidelines regarding re-use of data, data protection and anonymisation and issues of consent in secondary data analysis. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Iran J Public Health. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 20; Accepted Nov 5. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Background Research does not always involve collection of data from the participants.

Secondary data analysis Secondary analysis refers to the use of existing research data to find answer to a question that was different from the original work 2. Issues in Secondary data analysis Concerns about secondary use of data mostly revolve around potential harm to individual subjects and issue of return for consent. Issues in Secondary analysis of Qualitative data In qualitative research, the culture of data archiving is absent 4.

Conclusion There is a need for formulating specific guidelines regarding re-use of data, data protection and anonymisation and issues of consent in secondary data analysis. Acknowledgements The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. Resistance and adaptation to criminal identity: Using secondary analysis to evaluate classic studies of crime and deviance. Sociology , 34 4 : — Secondary analysis of qualitative data.

Advances in Nursing Science , 20 2 : 66— The British Sociological Association, Durham. Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy.

Primary, Secondary, and Meta-Analysis of Research1

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up.

Research does not always involve collection of data from the participants. There is huge amount of data that is being collected through the routine management information system and other surveys or research activities. The existing data can be analyzed to generate new hypothesis or answer critical research questions. This saves lots of time, money and other resources. Also data from large sample surveys may be of higher quality and representative of the population.

Secondary Data Analysis: Ethical Issues and Challenges

Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Secondary research or desk research is a research method that involves using already existing data. Existing data is summarized and collated to increase the overall effectiveness of research.

Secondary data refers to data that is collected by someone other than the primary user. Secondary data analysis can save time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and, particularly in the case of quantitative data , can provide larger and higher-quality databases that would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their own. However, secondary data analysis can be less useful in marketing research, as data may be outdated or inaccurate.

Primary Data VS Secondary Data

Primary sources of data collection have their advantages such as addressing specific research problems and applications in data management and storage. On the other hand, secondary data gathering has also a range of benefits, best practices, and important meaning in the marketing and data world. For each type of business to be successful, it is absolutely crucial to have reliable information for the market and customer characteristics.

Secondary Research- Definition, Methods and Examples.

Metrics details. The data from individual observational studies included in meta-analyses of drug effects are collected either from ad hoc methods i. The use of secondary sources may be prone to measurement bias and confounding due to over-the-counter and out-of-pocket drug consumption, or non-adherence to treatment. In fact, it has been noted that failing to consider the origin of the data as a potential cause of heterogeneity may change the conclusions of a meta-analysis. We aimed to assess to what extent the origin of data is explored as a source of heterogeneity in meta-analyses of observational studies.

In a time when data is becoming easily accessible to researchers all over the world, the practicality of utilizing secondary data for research is becoming more prevalent, same as its questionable authenticity when compared with primary data. These 2 types of data, when considered for research is a double-edged sword because it can equally make a research project as well as it can mar it. In a nutshell, primary data and secondary data both have their advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, when carrying out research, it is left for the researcher to weigh these factors and choose the better one. It is therefore important for one to study the similarities and differences between these data types so as to make proper decisions when choosing a better data type for research work.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Glass Published Psychology Educational Researcher. M y subject is data analysis at three levels.


Ajayi () states that primary data are factual and original, meanwhile, secondary data are the analysis and interpretation of primary data. Furthermore, he adds that primary data are collected originally by the researcher for the first time when the researcher conducts the research.


Теоретически постоянная мутация такого рода должна привести к тому, что компьютер, атакующий шифр, никогда не найдет узнаваемое словосочетание и не поймет, нашел ли он искомый ключ. Вся эта концепция чем-то напоминала идею колонизации Марса - на интеллектуальном уровне вполне осуществимую, но в настоящее время выходящую за границы человеческих возможностей. - Откуда вы взяли этот файл? - спросила. Коммандер не спешил с ответом: - Автор алгоритма - частное лицо. - Как же так? - Сьюзан откинулась на спинку стула.

Service Unavailable in EU region

Узнать, следит ли за ней Хейл, было невозможно. Нужно быстро пройти в кабинет Стратмора, но, конечно, не чересчур быстро: Хейл не должен ничего заподозрить.

В центре помещения из пола торчала, подобно носу исполинской торпеды, верхняя часть машины, ради которой было возведено все здание. Ее черный лоснящийся верх поднимался на двадцать три фута, а сама она уходила далеко вниз, под пол. Своей гладкой окружной формой она напоминала дельфина-косатку, застывшего от холода в схваченном морозом море. Это был ТРАНСТЕКСТ, компьютер, равного которому не было в мире, - шифровальная машина, засекреченная агентством.

Primary Sources of Data and Secondary Sources of Data

0 Comments

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *