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Dna And Rna Structure And Function Pdf

dna and rna structure and function pdf

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DNA deoxyribonucleic acid is the genomic material in cells that contains the genetic information used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. DNA, along with RNA and proteins, is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for life. Within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes. The complete set of chromosomes in a cell makes up its genome; the human genome has approximately 3 billion base pairs of DNA arranged into 46 chromosomes. DNA consists of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, with backbones made of sugars and phosphate groups joined by ester bonds.

DNA structure and function

In this section, we will examine the structures of DNA and RNA, and how these structures are related to the functions these molecules perform. We will begin with DNA, which is the hereditary information in every cell, that is copied and passed on from generation to generation. The race to elucidate the structure of DNA was one of the greatest stories of 20th century science. Their famous paper, in the April 25, issue of Nature, opened the modern era of molecular biology. Arguably, that one-page paper has had more scientific impact per word than any other research article ever published. Today, every high school biology student is familiar with the double helical structure of DNA and knows that G pairs with C and A with T. The double helix, made up of a pair of DNA strands, has at its core, bases joined by hydrogen bonds to form base pairs - adenine always paired with thymine, and guanine invariably paired with cytosine.

However, whereas DNA molecules are typically long and double stranded, RNA molecules are much shorter and are typically single stranded. RNA molecules perform a variety of roles in the cell but are mainly involved in the process of protein synthesis translation and its regulation. RNA is typically single stranded and is made of ribonucleotides that are linked by phosphodiester bonds. A ribonucleotide in the RNA chain contains ribose the pentose sugar , one of the four nitrogenous bases A, U, G, and C , and a phosphate group. The subtle structural difference between the sugars gives DNA added stability, making DNA more suitable for storage of genetic information, whereas the relative instability of RNA makes it more suitable for its more short-term functions. The RNA-specific pyrimidine uracil forms a complementary base pair with adenine and is used instead of the thymine used in DNA. Even though RNA is single stranded, most types of RNA molecules show extensive intramolecular base pairing between complementary sequences within the RNA strand, creating a predictable three-dimensional structure essential for their function Figure

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Components and structure of the nucleic acids. Polymerization occurs through the condensation of the phosphate on the 5' carbon and OH on the 3' carbon linkage. Eric Lander, Prof.

We've updated our Privacy Policy to make it clearer how we use your personal data. We use cookies to provide you with a better experience, read our Cookie Policy. Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and Ribonucleic acid RNA are perhaps the most important molecules in cell biology, responsible for the storage and reading of genetic information that underpins all life. They are both linear polymers, consisting of sugars, phosphates and bases, but there are some key differences which separate the two 1.

DNA and RNA

Structure and Function of RNA

RNA , abbreviation of ribonucleic acid , complex compound of high molecular weight that functions in cellular protein synthesis and replaces DNA deoxyribonucleic acid as a carrier of genetic codes in some viruses. RNA consists of ribose nucleotides nitrogenous bases appended to a ribose sugar attached by phosphodiester bonds, forming strands of varying lengths. The ribose sugar of RNA is a cyclical structure consisting of five carbons and one oxygen. The structure of the RNA molecule was described by R. Holley in RNA typically is a single-stranded biopolymer.

NCBI Bookshelf. Molecular Cell Biology. New York: W.

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Его пальцы снова задвигались, приводя в действие сотовый модем, и перед глазами появилось: СООБЩЕНИЕ ОТПРАВЛЕНО ГЛАВА 26 Сидя на скамейке напротив городской больницы, Беккер думал о том, что делать. Звонки в агентства услуг сопровождения ничего не дали. Коммандер, недовольный необходимостью говорить по линии, не защищенной от прослушивания, попросил Дэвида не звонить, пока кольцо не окажется в его руках.

Фонтейн заплатил за этого бегемота дешифровки два миллиарда и хотел, чтобы эти деньги окупились сполна. Каждая минута простоя ТРАНСТЕКСТА означала доллары, спущенные в канализацию. - Но, Мидж… - сказал Бринкерхофф.  - ТРАНСТЕКСТ не устраивает перерывов.

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  1. Alarico L.

    02.05.2021 at 20:38
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