File Name: ancient and medieval history of ethiopia .zip
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It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti and Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west and Sudan to the northwest. Ethiopian national identity is grounded in the historic and contemporary roles of Christianity and Islam, and the independence of Ethiopia from foreign rule, stemming from the various ancient Ethiopian kingdoms of antiquity. Oral literature tells that the monarchy was founded by the Solomonic dynasty of the Queen of Sheba , under its first king, Menelik I. During the late—19th-century Scramble for Africa , Ethiopia and Liberia were the only two nations that preserved their sovereignty from long-term colonisation by a European colonial power , and many newly independent nations on the continent adopted its flag colours. During this period, Ethiopia established its modern borders through extensive conquest of territories to its east, west and south. During Italian rule, the government abolished the centuries-old practice of slavery ,  and urbanization steadily increased.
Dessalegn Rahmato has also contributed several papers on contemporary issues on the history of the environment Dessalegn, They shed light on the impact of environmental degradation on social unrest and on changes of regime both in the ancient and modern periods of Ethiopia. Medieval environmental history is rarely studied in Ethiopia.
Ethiopia , country on the Horn of Africa. The country lies completely within the tropical latitudes and is relatively compact, with similar north-south and east-west dimensions. Ethiopia is the largest and most populated country in the Horn of Africa. With the secession of Eritrea , its former province along the Red Sea , Ethiopia became landlocked. In ancient times it remained centred on Aksum , an imperial capital located in the northern part of the modern state, about miles km from the Red Sea coast.
Adventurously sailing the Indian Ocean in the early s CE, Duarte Barbosa, a Portuguese naval officer, was confident that he was helping to forge a new, enduring era of Portuguese dominance. In the conflict that followed, the Portuguese plundered the Swahili city-states, burning buildings and enslaving African men and women. However, less than years later, Portuguese influences were noticeably absent in most of East Africa and their power in the Indian Ocean was fading rapidly. Barbosa, himself, had traveled with his brother-in-law, Ferdinand Magellan, and met an untimely end in his early 40s in the Philippines. Writing about the coast of East Africa, Barbosa paid little heed to the hundreds of years of Swahili history that preceded his visit.
The article covers the prehistory and history of Ethiopia from its emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle. Due to migration and imperial expansion, it grew to include many other primarily Afro-Asiatic -speaking communities, including Amhara , Oromos , Somalis , Tigray , Afars , Sidama , Gurage , Agaw and Harari , among others.
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