File Name: power and authority in sociology .zip
The concept of political sociology is the extended form of sociology which studies exclusively the relationship between the ruler or the state and the citizens and also the relationship among the citizens in a state. He also made it abundantly clear that an understanding of the nature and implications of political system is not possible without a perception of the play of social and economic forces in society.
Courtesy U. Despite the differences between government systems in the Middle East and the United States, their governments play the same fundamental role: in some fashion, they exert control over the people they govern. The nature of that control—what we will define as power and authority—is an important feature of society. Sociologists have a distinctive approach to studying governmental power and authority that differs from the perspective of political scientists.
Sociologists have a distinctive approach to studying governmental power and authority that differs from the perspective of political scientists. For the most part, political scientists focus on studying how power is distributed in different types of political systems. Sociologists, however, tend to be more interested in the influences of governmental power on society and in how social conflicts arise from the distribution of power.
Sociologists also examine how the use of power affects local, state, national, and global agendas, which in turn affect people differently based on status, class, and socioeconomic standing. For centuries, philosophers, politicians, and social scientists have explored and commented on the nature of power. Pittacus c. Indeed, the concept of power can have decidedly negative connotations, and the term itself is difficult to define.
Power affects more than personal relationships; it shapes larger dynamics like social groups, professional organizations, and governments. A dominant nation, for instance, will often use its clout to influence or support other governments or to seize control of other nation states.
Efforts by the U. Endeavors to gain power and influence do not necessarily lead to violence, exploitation, or abuse. Leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr. Both men organized nonviolent protests to combat corruption and injustice and succeeded in inspiring major reform. They relied on a variety of nonviolent protest strategies such as rallies, sit-ins, marches, petitions, and boycotts.
Modern technology has made such forms of nonviolent reform easier to implement. Today, protesters can use cell phones and the Internet to disseminate information and plans to masses of protesters in a rapid and efficient manner. In the Arab Spring uprisings, for example, Twitter feeds and other social media helped protesters coordinate their movements, share ideas, and bolster morale, as well as gain global support for their causes.
Social media was also important in getting accurate accounts of the demonstrations out to the world, in contrast to many earlier situations in which government control of the media censored news reports. Notice that in these examples, the users of power were the citizens rather than the governments. They found they had power because they were able to exercise their will over their own leaders. Thus, government power does not necessarily equate to absolute power.
Politics refers to the distribution and exercise of power within a society, and polity refers to the political institution through which power is distributed and exercised.
In any society, decisions must be made regarding the allocation of resources and other matters. Except perhaps in the simplest societies, specific people and often specific organizations make these decisions. Depending on the society, they sometimes make these decisions solely to benefit themselves and other times make these decisions to benefit the society as a whole. Regardless of who benefits, a central point is this: some individuals and groups have more power than others.
Because power is so essential to an understanding of politics, we begin our discussion of politics with a discussion of power. Most of us have seen a striking example of raw power when we are driving a car and see a police car in our rearview mirror. At that particular moment, the driver of that car has enormous power over us. We make sure we strictly obey the speed limit and all other driving rules.
When the officer approaches our car, we ordinarily try to be as polite as possible and pray we do not get a ticket. When you were 16 and your parents told you to be home by midnight or else, your arrival home by this curfew again illustrated the use of power, in this case parental power. If a child in middle school gives her lunch to a bully who threatens her, that again is an example of the use of power, or, in this case, the misuse of power.
These are all vivid examples of power, but the power that social scientists study is both grander and, often, more invisible Wrong, Much of it occurs behind the scenes, and scholars continue to debate who is wielding it and for whose benefit they wield it. Legitimate authority sometimes just called authority , Weber said, is power whose use is considered just and appropriate by those over whom the power is exercised.
In short, if a society approves of the exercise of power in a particular way, then that power is also legitimate authority. The example of the police car in our rearview mirrors is an example of legitimate authority. He called these three types traditional authority, rational-legal authority, and charismatic authority.
We turn to these now. As the name implies, traditional authority is power that is rooted in traditional, or long-standing, beliefs and practices of a society. Individuals enjoy traditional authority for at least one of two reasons. The first is inheritance, as certain individuals are granted traditional authority because they are the children or other relatives of people who already exercise traditional authority.
Traditional authority is common in many preindustrial societies, where tradition and custom are so important, but also in more modern monarchies discussed shortly , where a king, queen, or prince enjoys power because she or he comes from a royal family.
Traditional authority is granted to individuals regardless of their qualifications. They do not have to possess any special skills to receive and wield their authority, as their claim to it is based solely on their bloodline or supposed divine designation.
An individual granted traditional authority can be intelligent or stupid, fair or arbitrary, and exciting or boring but receives the authority just the same because of custom and tradition.
As not all individuals granted traditional authority are particularly well qualified to use it, societies governed by traditional authority sometimes find that individuals bestowed it are not always up to the job. This form of authority is a hallmark of modern democracies, where power is given to people elected by voters, and the rules for wielding that power are usually set forth in a constitution, a charter, or another written document.
Whereas traditional authority resides in an individual because of inheritance or divine designation, rational-legal authority resides in the office that an individual fills, not in the individual per se. The authority of the president of the United States thus resides in the office of the presidency, not in the individual who happens to be president. When that individual leaves office, authority transfers to the next president.
This transfer is usually smooth and stable, and one of the marvels of democracy is that officeholders are replaced in elections without revolutions having to be necessary. Rational-legal authority helps ensure an orderly transfer of power in a time of crisis.
When John F. Kennedy was assassinated in , Vice President Lyndon Johnson was immediately sworn in as the next president. When Richard Nixon resigned his office in disgrace in because of his involvement in the Watergate scandal, Vice President Gerald Ford who himself had become vice president after Spiro Agnew resigned because of financial corruption became president.
Because the U. Constitution provided for the transfer of power when the presidency was vacant, and because U. Such charismatic individuals may exercise authority over a whole society or only a specific group within a larger society. Each of these individuals had extraordinary personal qualities that led their followers to admire them and to follow their orders or requests for action. Much of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Library of Congress — public domain.
Charismatic authority can reside in a person who came to a position of leadership because of traditional or rational-legal authority. Over the centuries, several kings and queens of England and other European nations were charismatic individuals as well while some were far from charismatic. A few U. Weber emphasized that charismatic authority in its pure form i.
The reason for this is simple: once charismatic leaders die, their authority dies as well. After the deaths of all the charismatic leaders named in the preceding paragraph, no one came close to replacing them in the hearts and minds of their followers. Because charismatic leaders recognize that their eventual death may well undermine the nation or cause they represent, they often designate a replacement leader, who they hope will also have charismatic qualities.
This new leader may be a grown child of the charismatic leader or someone else the leader knows and trusts.
The danger, of course, is that any new leaders will lack sufficient charisma to have their authority accepted by the followers of the original charismatic leader. For this reason, Weber recognized that charismatic authority ultimately becomes more stable when it is evolves into traditional or rational-legal authority.
Transformation into rational-legal authority occurs when a society ruled by a charismatic leader develops the rules and bureaucratic structures that we associate with a government. Weber used the term routinization of charisma to refer to the transformation of charismatic authority in either of these ways. Lanoue, D. From Camelot to the teflon president: Economics and presidential popularaity since Weber, M.
Economy and society: An outline of interpretive sociology G. Wittich, Eds. Berkeley: University of California Press. Original work published Wrong, D. Power: Its forms, bases, and uses. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. Skip to content Learning Objectives Define power and the three types of authority.
Explain why charismatic authority may be unstable in the long run. Figure He is pictured here with fascist Benito Mussolini of Italy. Photo courtesy of U. National Archives and Records Administration. Social media also played an important role in rallying grassroots support.
Traditional Authority As the name implies, traditional authority is power that is rooted in traditional, or long-standing, beliefs and practices of a society. According to Max Weber, the three types of legitimate authority are traditional, rational-legal, and charismatic. Charismatic authority is relatively unstable because the authority held by a charismatic leader may not easily extend to anyone else after the leader dies.
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Politics refers to the distribution and exercise of power within a society, and polity refers to the political institution through which power is distributed and exercised. In any society, decisions must be made regarding the allocation of resources and other matters. Except perhaps in the simplest societies, specific people and often specific organizations make these decisions. Depending on the society, they sometimes make these decisions solely to benefit themselves and other times make these decisions to benefit the society as a whole. Regardless of who benefits, a central point is this: some individuals and groups have more power than others. Because power is so essential to an understanding of politics, we begin our discussion of politics with a discussion of power. Most of us have seen a striking example of raw power when we are driving a car and see a police car in our rearview mirror.
Sociologists have a distinctive approach to studying governmental power and authority that differs from the perspective of political scientists.
In sociology , authority is the legitimate power which one person or a group possesses and practices over another. The element of legitimacy is vital to the notion of authority and is the main means by which authority is distinguished from the more general concept of power. Power can be exerted by the use of force or violence.
Он думал, что сможет обойтись без ее участия - принимая во внимание ее склонность к самостоятельности - и сам найдет этот ключ, но уже столкнулся с проблемами, пытаясь самостоятельно запустить Следопыта. Рисковать еще раз ему не хотелось. - Сьюзан, - в его голосе послышалась решимость, - я прошу тебя помочь мне найти ключ Хейла.
За пределами концентрических окружностей появились две тонкие линии. Они были похожи на сперматозоиды, стремящиеся проникнуть в неподатливую яйцеклетку. - Пора, ребята! - Джабба повернулся к директору.
Заручившись поддержкой федеральных фондов и получив карт-бланш на все необходимые меры для решения проблемы, АНБ приступило к созданию невозможного - первой универсальной машины для вскрытия шифров. Вопреки широко распространенному мнению о том, что такой компьютер создать невозможно, АНБ осталось верным своему девизу: возможно все; на невозможное просто требуется больше времени. Через пять лет, истратив полмиллиона рабочих часов и почти два миллиарда долларов, АН Б вновь доказало жизненность своего девиза.
Поссорились. На мгновение Беккер задумался. Потом изобразил смущенную улыбку. - Неужели это так заметно. - Как ее зовут? - Женщина лукаво подмигнула.
- Что же это за цикличная функция, над которой три миллиона процессоров бьются уже шестнадцать часов. Он постоял в нерешительности, раздумывая, не следует ли поставить в известность начальника лаборатории безопасности. Да будь они прокляты, эти криптографы. Ничего не понимают в системах безопасности.
Двухцветный задумался и развел руками. - Каким рейсом она летит. - Она сказала, колымагой.
Hola? - крикнул он, приоткрыв дверь.
Собрав все силы, Хейл, сильнее обхватив Сьюзан за талию, начал пятясь подниматься по лестнице. Она пыталась цепляться каблуками за ступеньки, чтобы помешать ему, но все было бесполезно. Он был гораздо сильнее, и ему легче было бы подталкивать ее вверх, тем более что площадка подсвечивалась мерцанием мониторов в кабинете Стратмора.
Беккер закрыл глаза и попытался сосредоточиться. Итак, каков следующий шаг. Он решил подумать об этом через минуту. Сейчас ему надо было совершить давно уже откладываемую прогулку в туалетную комнату.
Беккер обернулся. Двери оказались прямо перед ним, словно приглашая его принять участие в празднестве, до которого ему не было никакого дела. Внезапно он понял, что входит в собор.
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