File Name: anatomy and histology of kidney .zip
Nephron , functional unit of the kidney , the structure that actually produces urine in the process of removing waste and excess substances from the blood. There are about 1,, nephrons in each human kidney. The most primitive nephrons are found in the kidneys pronephros of primitive fish, amphibian larvae, and embryos of more advanced vertebrates.
About Translations. This section of notes gives an overview mainly of adult renal histology, see also Renal System Development notes. Moodle - Virtual Slides requires Moodle log in. Mouse renal podocyte EM .
There have never been sufficient kidney donations to provide a kidney to each person needing one. In this video, Dr. The paired kidneys lie on either side of the spine in the retroperitoneal space between the parietal peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall, well protected by muscle, fat, and ribs.
The left kidney is located at about the T12 to L3 vertebrae, whereas the right is lower due to slight displacement by the liver. Upper portions of the kidneys are somewhat protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs Figure Each kidney weighs about — g in males and — g in females.
They are about 11—14 cm in length, 6 cm wide, and 4 cm thick, and are directly covered by a fibrous capsule composed of dense, irregular connective tissue that helps to hold their shape and protect them. This capsule is covered by a shock-absorbing layer of adipose tissue called the renal fat pad , which in turn is encompassed by a tough renal fascia.
The fascia and, to a lesser extent, the overlying peritoneum serve to firmly anchor the kidneys to the posterior abdominal wall in a retroperitoneal position. Each pyramid creates urine and terminates into a renal papilla.
The kidneys are well vascularized and receive about 25 percent of the cardiac output at rest. Blood enters the kidney via the paired renal arteries that form directly from the descending aorta and each enters the kidney at the renal hila. Once in the kidney, each renal artery first divides into segmental arteries, followed by further branching to form interlobar arteries that pass through the renal columns to reach the cortex Figure The interlobar arteries, in turn, branch into arcuate arteries, cortical radiate arteries, and then into afferent arterioles.
There are about 1. Once the nephrons have filtered the blood, renal veins return blood directly to the inferior vena cava. A portal system is formed when the blood flows from the glomerulus to the efferent arteriole through a second capillary bed, the peritubular capillaries and vasa recta , surrounding the proximal and distal convoluted tubules and the loop of Henle.
Most water and solutes are recovered by this second capillary bed. This filtrate is processed and finally gathered by collecting ducts that drain into the minor calyces, which merge to form major calyces; the filtrate then proceeds to the renal pelvis and finally the ureters. As noted previously, the structure of the kidney is divided into two principle regions—the peripheral rim of cortex and the central medulla.
The two kidneys receive about 25 percent of cardiac output. They are protected in the retroperitoneal space by the renal fat pad and overlying ribs and muscle. Ureters, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves enter and leave at the renal hilum. The renal arteries arise directly from the aorta, and the renal veins drain directly into the inferior vena cava. Kidney function is derived from the actions of about 1. A portal system is formed when the blood flows through a second capillary bed surrounding the proximal and distal convoluted tubules and the loop of Henle.
This filtrate is processed and finally gathered by collecting ducts that drain into the minor calyces, which merge to form the major calyces; the filtrate then proceeds to the renal pelvis and finally the ureters. How does the renal portal system differ from the hypothalamo—hypophyseal and digestive portal systems?
Skip to content Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the kidney. Describe the external structure of the kidney, including its location, support structures, and covering Identify the major internal divisions and structures of the kidney Identify the major blood vessels associated with the kidney and trace the path of blood through the kidney Identify the major structures and subdivisions of the nephron and describe them histologically.
External Website There have never been sufficient kidney donations to provide a kidney to each person needing one. Chapter Review As noted previously, the structure of the kidney is divided into two principle regions—the peripheral rim of cortex and the central medulla. Review Questions. Critical Thinking Questions 1. What anatomical structures provide protection to the kidney?
Name the structures found in the renal hilum. Solutions Answers for Critical Thinking Questions Retroperitoneal anchoring, renal fat pads, and ribs provide protection to the kidney. The renal portal system has an artery between the first and second capillary bed.
The others have a vein. The structures found in the renal hilum are arteries, veins, ureters, lymphatics, and nerves. Previous: Next: Share This Book Share on Twitter.
Two bean shaped kidneys are attached to the posterior abdominal wall, one on each side of the vertebral column. The kidneys have a tough fibrous capsule irregular dense connective tissue for protection. Otherwise they have very little connective tissue between the nephrons. The kidney has a granular cortex outer region. It has this appearance because it is full of ovoid filtration units. The kidney is organised into many lobes, organised in a pyramidal structure, where the outer portion is made up of cortex, and the inner portion is made up of the medulla.
There have never been sufficient kidney donations to provide a kidney to each person needing one. In this video, Dr. The paired kidneys lie on either side of the spine in the retroperitoneal space between the parietal peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall, well protected by muscle, fat, and ribs. The left kidney is located at about the T12 to L3 vertebrae, whereas the right is lower due to slight displacement by the liver. Upper portions of the kidneys are somewhat protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs Figure
Although the histological traits of kidney structures are well known in fish the wide variations in their anatomy, histology, and cytology, related to.
The Kidney pp Cite as. This chapter focuses on three levels of kidney morphology: embryologic development, gross anatomical structures, and histological features. The first section illustrates the progression of kidney development from initial rudimentary pronephroi to metanephroi or permanent kidneys residing in the posterior abdominal wall. In the second section, gross features of the kidney are discussed, along with its relationship to other structures, vascular perfusion, lymphatic drainage, and nervous system innervation. The final section explores the microanatomical structures that allow the kidney to function as an integral component of the urinary system.
The kidneys are located at the rear wall of the abdominal cavity and they are protected by the ribcage. The kidneys are the primary functional organ of the renal system. They are essential in homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid—base balance, and the regulation of blood pressure by maintaining salt and water balance. They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood and remove wastes that are excreted through the urine. They are also responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids, and will maintain the balance of these molecules in the body.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs in the renal system. They help the body pass waste as urine. They also help filter blood before sending it back to the heart.
Смерть ее веры в. Любовь и честь были забыты. Мечта, которой он жил все эти годы, умерла. Он никогда не получит Сьюзан Флетчер. Никогда.
Самопроизвольный взрыв? - ужаснулась Соши. - Господи Иисусе. - Ищите.
Камера вдруг повернулась к укрытию Халохота.
Не успел он набрать международный код, как в трубке раздался записанный на пленку голос: Todos los circuitos estan ocupados - Пожалуйста, положите трубку и перезвоните позднее. Беккер нахмурился и положил трубку на рычаг. Он совсем забыл: звонок за границу из Испании - все равно что игра в рулетку, все зависит от времени суток и удачи. Придется попробовать через несколько минут.
Через некоторое время им с огромным трудом удалось расширить щель до одного фута. - Не отпускай, - сказал Стратмор, стараясь изо всех сил. - Еще чуточку. Сьюзан удалось протиснуть в щель плечо. Теперь ей стало удобнее толкать.
Клушар вспомнил, что ее звали Капля Росы. Беккер скорчил гримасу: что это за имя. Скорее кличка коровы, чем имя красавицы.
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