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Human Evolution And Culture Highlights Of Anthropology Pdf

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Reviewed by Guy Prouty, Ph. There is no index or glossary to this text; they are needed to make this text more comprehensive.

But you may not know how scientists came to that conclusion. The idea that humans evolved in Africa can be traced to Charles Darwin. However, he also noted, a large, extinct ape once lived in Europe millions of years ago, leaving plenty of time for our earliest ancestors to migrate to Africa. By then, Neanderthals had been found in Europe; Java Man now known as Homo erectus had been discovered in Indonesia and Piltdown Man later exposed as a hoax had been unearthed in England. Although these ancient beings were primitive, they clearly resembled modern humans.

Human Evolution and Culture: Highlights of Anthropology

Human activity at multiple scales is the primary driver of the environmental challenges humanity faces Steffen et al. Numerous scholars have argued that addressing environmental problems will require large-scale change in human behavior and the institutional, social and cultural forces that shape behavior Princen ; Speth ; Beddoe et al. In fact, most definitions of sustainability and sustainable development implicitly or explicitly recognize the need for changes in human perspectives, aspirations, technologies, norms, or worldviews—in short, culture Footnote 1.

However, calls for cultural change often stop short of proposing the precise mechanisms through which such change may occur precisely because the relevant mechanisms of behavioral and cultural change are not known. The multiple disciplines that comprise the social sciences and humanities have different and, often competing, theories of cultural change that operate at multiple levels of human organization.

These disciplinary differences have been a challenge for sustainability science Gardner , and the absence of a robust, non-disciplinary, theoretical framework hinders progress towards a deeper understanding of when and how sustainable social-ecological systems emerge Levin and Clark Recently, sustainability scientists have been explicit about the need to incorporate mechanisms of cultural change in their research Beddoe et al.

Importantly, cultural evolution theory offers an integrative approach to studying the dynamics of cultural change based on causal models of the mechanisms through which individual and population processes interact.

Despite many examples of sustainable resource management, exploitative and unsustainable resource management are common Steffen et al. However, cultural change may be important for driving the proliferation of sustainable practices. This is because, although evolved genetic mechanisms, ecological processes, and socio-cultural mechanisms all influence resource use, social conditions often change more quickly than ecological conditions and cultural evolution is more rapid than genetic evolution Perreault As such, there is an urgent need for sustainability scientists to develop more holistic or inclusive models to explain and integrate socio-cultural mechanisms of change at both individual and institutional levels Borgerhoff Mulder and Coppolillo Such models are needed to inform sustainability policy solutions that can be applied cross-culturally and in divergent contexts.

Currently, however, the dynamics of cultural change are not well understood in the context of sustainability. By focusing on applications of cultural evolution, we view this special issue as a starting point for determining how we can harness processes of cultural change Wilson et al. The study of cultural evolution seeks to explain the diversity of human behavior observed worldwide and offers a mechanistic, causal framework for understanding changes in socially learned norms, values, and institutions Richerson and Boyd Cultural evolution gives us a unique view into the factors that shape the behaviors that ultimately contribute to, or hinder, the transition to a more sustainable society.

Thus, there is value in synthesizing the theoretical Boyd and Richerson ; Henrich and empirical literature Campbell ; McElreath et al. This synthesis is especially timely given the recent confluence of cultural evolution models with multilevel selection theory Wilson ; Wilson et al.

The cultural multilevel selection CMLS framework recognizes the potential for evolutionary pressures to operate on multiple scales simultaneously. This framework is particularly valuable because it has been used to explain the evolution of cooperation Wilson ; Traulsen and Nowak ; Wilson and Wilson , which is an almost ubiquitous challenge in the context of sustainability and sustainable resource use. CMLS and related models also help explain the social transmission of altruistic behavior Wilson and Kniffin , resource conservation under climate instability Safarzynska , the emergence of economic institutions Bowles et al.

As such, we see cultural evolution as a tool that allows sustainability scientists to incorporate cultural dynamics into their work, especially the emergence and spread of sustainable behaviors, practices, norms, and institutions. The goal of this special issue is to introduce readers to cultural evolution theory and its applications in sustainability science, thereby catalyzing future research in this field.

The objective of this working group was to unite cultural evolution scholars with empirical social—ecological systems researchers to create an integrative evolutionary framework of social-ecological systems change.

We sought to develop a clearer interdisciplinary articulation of the synthetic evolutionary framework, to reinterpret current and historical social—ecological case studies through the lens of cultural evolution theory, and to develop novel testable hypotheses about social-ecological systems change.

Before describing the papers in this special feature, however, we briefly summarize cultural evolution theory and the cultural multilevel selection framework.

The idea that there are parallels between how cultural traits change and how biological species evolve dates back to Darwin Darwin However, cultural evolution itself is a relatively new field.

The foundational mathematical models on the topic were published in thes Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman ; Boyd and Richerson Several accessible review articles Richerson and Henrich ; Mesoudi , book chapters Morgan et al. We provide a brief overview to explain the relevance of cultural evolution for sustainability scientists.

This approach typically focuses on individual cultural traits or variants Boyd and Richerson ; Mesoudi While culture entails socially rather than genetically transmitted information, change in the distribution of cultural traits in a human population can be viewed as a Darwinian process Darwin ; Campbell ; Simonton This is because cultural change entails heritable variation and differential propagation through time.

Individuals hold and express different beliefs, values, knowledge, and behaviors variation that can be observed by, shared with, and imitated by other individuals in a population inheritance. Some traits spread through a population more than others as a direct function of their effects. That is, traits that are perceived to be associated with success, or to generally lead to favorable outcomes are more likely to be copied pay-off based transmission.

In other cases, traits may be copied because they are more common in a population conformity-biased transmission or because they are expressed by prestigious individuals, even if those traits did not directly result in the high status of the individual modeling that behavior prestige-biased transmission.

Traits may also get copied more preferentially based on their content, regardless of the ultimate effect on an individual. For instance, experimental studies suggest that individuals are more attentive to cultural traits that generate positive or negative emotional reactions or contain social information Mesoudi because such behaviors or beliefs were likely to have been adaptive in our ancestral environments Richerson and Henrich ; Mesoudi Another important force in cultural evolution is guided variation, in which individuals or groups create new traits by learning, research, and similar endeavors.

In conjunction with the transmission biases outlined above, guided variation can lead to the rapid spread of new behaviors and institutions. Individuals and groups may consider multiple innovations before deciding on which one to adopt, which can itself be modeled as a Darwinian process Campbell ; Simonton Research teams, legislative committees, panels of judges, constitutional conventions and many other kinds of groups can invent new variants.

Thus, unlike in genetic evolution where variation arises only by random mutation, created cultural variation is usually not completely random with respect to outcomes. While group-level guided variation is not as well studied by cultural evolutionists as that at the individual level, it has been well studied in other research traditions such as political science Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith and social psychology Haslam Guided variation is also a multi-level process.

A common form of institutional evolution is to remodel institutions considered functional at a lower level to apply them to a higher level, which combines biased transmission and guided variation.

Similarly, community-based natural resource management practiced in specific locations prompted a global trend in conservation interventions Hulme and Murphree Likewise, global institutions can arise by creatively scaling up national institutions, as can be seen with the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, and the World Bank. Guided variation and cultural transmission biases can then shape population-level dynamics and can be used to understand and anticipate cultural change over time.

Any factor that changes the frequency of traits in a population contributes to evolutionary change. But forces with a selective influence on traits in the population, such as the natural selection of cultural traits on their outcomes and various selective social learning mechanisms, can contribute to cultural adaptation to the environment. Group-level cultural change is especially important in so far as sustainable resource use challenges often evoke social dilemmas that can typically be solved through intergroup dynamics, as we explore in more detail below.

Humans are social animals that are well adapted to group social life. We are attentive to the symbols and characteristics that differentiate groups, respond to social norms and group conventions, and often prefer to interact with those with whom we share a common group identity McElreath et al. These fundamental group-level cultural dynamics are important for understanding human behavior generally and also influence environmental cooperation.

Cooperation is an essential concept in sustainability science because many of the most pressing environmental challenges can be characterized as social dilemmas—situations in which the best outcomes for individuals conflicts with the best outcome for the group collectively. Cooperation sometimes requires individuals to bear personal costs to provide diffuse or long-term benefits to a broader group, for example to protect biodiversity for future generations. When cooperation entails net personal costs i.

For this reason, the evolution of cooperation has been a puzzle for biologists. However, cooperation within groups can evolve when groups compete. Though the evolutionary fitness of a cooperator is lower than non-cooperators within a group, groups of cooperators may still outcompete groups of selfish individuals. When cooperative groups outcompete non-cooperative groups the behaviors, norms, and institutions of the dominant group including cooperative tendencies can spread via a number of mechanisms Boyd and Richerson , ; Henrich The process of the adaptive change of group traits due to group competition is called group selection.

Cooperation can also arise when groups play games against hostile nature as well as games against competing groups Gavrilets and Richerson Group selection forces are stronger when the trait at hand varies more between groups than within groups Price ; Henrich Because natural populations are usually genetically well mixed, group selection is deemed rare in nature.

Human groups, however, have greater group-level variation in culture than in genes Bell et al. Thus, cultural group selection provides a plausible theoretical explanation for the evolution of cooperation in human societies Henrich Culturally constructed environments act as selective factors on genes, as when institutions reward conformity and punish non-conformity.

Humans are comparatively docile Simon , learn norms easily and conform to them Chudek and Henrich , and are sensitive to social reinforcement Baum Humans tend to favor institutions that solve dilemmas of cooperation and our large-scale social systems are arguably a product of innate biases that are ultimately a product of cultural group selection. The presence of group selection does not, however, mean that individual selection pressures disappear.

Instead selection pressures occurring simultaneously at different levels must be balanced to gauge the overall effect of evolution. Multilevel selection theory helps to account for these simultaneous pressures Okasha Within groups, cooperative individuals who bear the costs of providing group benefits will tend to have lower fitness relative to freeriding group members. However, their cooperation can nonetheless increase the fitness of their group relative to other groups, enabling cooperation to spread in the population over time.

Institutionalized systems of reward and punishment can also align individual interests with group functions, reducing the impact of within-group selfishness. Moreover, the evolution of such institutional systems will tend to be favored by higher level selection processes. Therefore, the cultural multilevel selection framework CMLS asks when group selection pressures outweigh individual selection pressures, and uses that balance as the key indicator for the emergence of cooperation in environmental dilemmas.

The application of cultural evolution and multilevel selection to sustainability science generates a crucial hypothesis about the emergence of conservation behaviors and policies Waring et al.

The hypothesis is that cooperative environmental traits such as conservation behaviors and policies are more likely to spread when the dominant level of cultural selection is at or above the social scale of the relevant environmental dilemma. However, the CMLS framework is complex and requires careful application and attention to definitions. For example, detecting group-level cultural features, such as a recycling policy, is not equivalent to detecting group-level adaptations for environmental action.

Kline et al. With these conditions met, Kline et al. For that, the strength of group-level cultural adaptation must overwhelm other evolutionary processes such as individual adaptation, or cultural drift.

We outline the key components and contributions of the remaining articles in the special issue below. Among other topics of importance for sustainability science, these ten papers include re-interpretations of classic case studies of long-standing resource management systems Waring and Acheson; Brooks et al. This set of papers illustrates how cultural evolution theory can contribute to sustainability science in several ways.

While most papers focus on a single case or set of related cases, Ellis et al. These authors propose that most of the major human solutions for environmental management have evolved through group-level selection on human culture.

Ellis et al. The authors argue that the scale of human society has coevolved with the intensity of human ecosystem engineering in a reciprocal system of causation. Other papers in the special issue examine cultural group selection in the context of mobile Brooks et al.

Several papers are based on a retrospective application of the CMLS framework to examine the likelihood that cultural group selection resulted in the emergence and spread of a trait that facilitated sustainable resource management Acheson and Waring; Brooks et al. Importantly, two of these cases explicitly focused on classic cases studies of common pool resource management—irrigation water management in Bali and lobster fishing in Maine.

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She saw me to the porch and stood there while I climbed into my car. She waved, called out admonitions to drive carefully on the wet streets, thanked me for coming, hoped she would see me again soon. This brief introduction presents readers with the four fields of anthropology, helping them to understand humans and all their variety. Students will gain a deeper understanding of 1 anthropology… poverty and welfare in england by steven king I never had a bit of trouble from him, but I never saw him back down from anybody, either. I liked him because he was a fellow Texan. The only time I ever saw him get rattled was when Piss-call Charley bombed his foxhole on New Britain and he was calling over and over for a corpsman. He was a Louisiana Cajun from down around Francisville, and he had that accent that kind of swallowed up his words.

human evolution and culture highlights of anthropology pdf

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Human Evolution and Culture presents the highlights of the popular Anthropology , 14th edition by the same author team. This brief introduction presents readers with the four fields of anthropology, helping them to understand humans and all their variety. Students will gain a deeper understanding of 1 anthropology, 2 the biological and cultural evolution of humans, 3 cultural variation, and 4 how anthropology can be applied beyond academia. The new 8th edition includes expanded focus on environmental issues. Additionally, the size of the book 19 chapters makes it useful for quarter courses, as well as for courses that encourage a lot of supplemental reading.

Because of the diverse subject matter it encompasses , anthropology has become, especially since the middle of the 20th century, a collection of more specialized fields. Physical anthropology is the branch that concentrates on the biology and evolution of humanity. It is discussed in greater detail in the article human evolution. The branches that study the social and cultural constructions of human groups are variously recognized as belonging to cultural anthropology or ethnology , social anthropology, linguistic anthropology, and psychological anthropology see below.

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Human activity at multiple scales is the primary driver of the environmental challenges humanity faces Steffen et al. Numerous scholars have argued that addressing environmental problems will require large-scale change in human behavior and the institutional, social and cultural forces that shape behavior Princen ; Speth ; Beddoe et al. In fact, most definitions of sustainability and sustainable development implicitly or explicitly recognize the need for changes in human perspectives, aspirations, technologies, norms, or worldviews—in short, culture Footnote 1.

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Human Evolution and Culture: Highlights of Anthropology, 8th Edition. Carol R. Ember, Human Relations Area Files. Melvin R. Ember, Human Relations Area.


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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. T he hominin fossil record documents a history of critical evolutionary events that have ultimately shaped and defined what it means to be human, including the origins of bipedalism; the emergence of our genus Homo ; the first use of stone tools; increases in brain size; and the emergence of Homo sapiens , tools, and culture. The geological record suggests that some of these evolutionary events were coincident with substantial changes in African climate, raising the intriguing possibility that key junctures in human evolution and behavioral development may have been affected or controlled by the environmental characteristics of the areas where hominins evolved. However, with both a sparse hominin fossil record and an incomplete understanding of past climates, the particular effect of the environment on hominin evolution remains speculative.

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Его взгляд не фокусировался, и он не мог прочитать надпись, но, похоже, она сделана по-английски. Первая буква вроде бы О, или Q, или ноль: глаза у него так болели. что он не мог разобрать, но все-таки кое-как прочитал первые буквы, В них не было никакого смысла.

 Он пытался, сэр! - Мидж помахала листком бумаги.  - Уже четыре раза. ТРАНСТЕКСТ заклинило.

 Уран и плутоний! - воскликнул Джабба, и в его голосе впервые послышались нотки надежды.  - Нам нужно установить разницу между этими элементами.  - Он повернулся к бригаде своих помощников.

Беккер вышел из телефонной будки на перекрестке калле Саладо и авениды Асунсьон. Несмотря на интенсивное движение, воздух был наполнен сладким ароматом севильских апельсиновых деревьев. Спустились сумерки - самое романтическое время суток. Он подумал о Сьюзан.

Если она потеряет с ним контакт, ей придется его позвать, и тогда Хейл может их услышать. Удаляясь от таких надежных ступенек, Сьюзан вспомнила, как в детстве играла в салки поздно ночью, и почувствовала себя одинокой и беззащитной, ТРАНСТЕКСТ был единственным островом в открытом черном море. Через каждые несколько шагов Стратмор останавливался, держа пистолет наготове, и прислушивался. Единственным звуком, достигавшим его ушей, был едва уловимый гул, шедший снизу. Сьюзан хотелось потянуть шефа назад, в безопасность его кабинета.

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Его испанский тут же потерял нарочитый акцент.  - Я не из севильской полиции. Меня прислала сюда американская правительственная организация, с тем чтобы я нашел кольцо. Это все, что я могу вам сказать.

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Human Evolution And Culture Highlights Of Anthropology 8th Edition

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