File Name: pros and cons about voting system and us .zip
Local elections scheduled to take place in England and Wales in the first week of May — including the London mayoral vote — have been postponed as part of attempts to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus in the UK.
Following advice from medical experts, the UK government decided to hold off until May Across the English Channel, French president Emmanuel Macron considered cancelling mayoral and municipal elections, but later judged that they should take place as planned. Some lower profile contests might not be mourned by the public during times of major concern, but their absence raises the question of whether other elections should be postponed.
Elections have been rescheduled before, of course. In , the Democratic Republic of Congo delayed the presidential contest because of Ebola. In the UK general election was held off because of the spread of foot and mouth disease across the country. The most obvious and important reason for postponing an election is the health of everyone involved. They are public events that deliberately bring together people to exchange ideas and transmit infectious arguments about the future direction of a community.
They should involve candidates and their supporters reaching out to the public to get the vote out. Door knocking, leaflet distribution in busy city centres, and mass rallies with activists drumming up support are all signs of a healthy election.
Elections are also supposed to be a time for talking. Simply holding an election is insufficient because citizens should actively consider their interests and the issues; weigh up competing arguments made by candidates; and discuss them around the dinner table, in the coffee shop and street corner. Then, on election day, citizens turn up to polling stations and are handed a ballot paper.
In many countries, electronic kiosks are installed requiring each voter to touch a screen to cast their ballot. In some countries, serving as a poll worker is a compulsory civic duty.
Turnout is also likely to be hit if an election is held during an epidemic because many people may stay away from the polls. Iran saw low turnout in its February elections amid the coronavirus outbreak. Lower turnout as a whole is bad for democracy but there is also the question of whether turnout could end up being lower among particular demographic groups. There is always an unevenness in who votes and coronavirus could introduce significant new inequalities because elderly voters and those with underlying health conditions may decide to stay away from the polls just in case.
Holding elections at a time when some demographics are at a higher risk would seem to confound the principle that the electoral process should provide equality to everyone and that measures should be put in place to mitigate and address turnout inequalities. Postponing a vote could, however, mean that leaders and representatives who are not necessarily doing a good job will remain in office for longer. Citizens will be temporarily denied their right to shape public policy — perhaps at exactly the moment that they need to.
In some cases, there will be concern that a government may capitalise on a crisis to avoid holding an election at all. If one is postponed because of coronavirus, will it be rearranged? If so, when? Incumbent governments could be given an opportunity to reschedule at a moment when the opinion polls are more favourable.
Postponement should therefore be a last resort so that we can be reassured that democratic life will continue. Where postponement is on the cards, cross-party consensus on a clearly agreed timetable for rescheduling is crucial. Democracy relies on responsible political parties, who should act as custodians for the process and not be opportunistic. These are obvious workarounds for epidemics which could be expanded. This is already possible in many countries. South Korea is currently putting emergency mechanisms in place so that citizens can vote from hospitals ahead of the April elections.
The coronavirus pandemic is a reminder of the unexpected risks involved in running an election, albeit on an epic scale. These votes will never end up being the democratic ideal.
But postponing poses risks to democracy, too. Contingency planning is the best hope of keeping the electoral show on the road.
Edition: Available editions United Kingdom. Become an author Sign up as a reader Sign in. Toby James , University of East Anglia. Should these events be cancelled? There are pros and cons on both sides of the debate.
January 16, — November 5, RL American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States indirectly, through an arrangement known as the electoral college system. The electoral college system comprises a complex mosaic of constitutional provisions, state and federal laws, and political party rules and practices. Although the electoral college system has delivered uncontested results in 46 out of 50 presidential elections since it assumed its present constitutional form in , it has been the subject of persistent criticism and frequent proposals for reform. Reform advocates cite several problems with the current system, including a close or multi-candidate election can result in no electoral college majority, leading to a contingent election in Congress; the current system can result in the election of a President and Vice President who received a majority of electoral votes, but fewer popular votes, than their opponents; the formula for assignment of electoral votes is claimed to provide an unfair advantage for less populous states and does not account for population changes between censuses; and the winner-take-all system used by most states does not recognize the proportional strength of the losing major party, minor party, and independent candidates. They maintain that repair of the electoral college system, rather than abolition, would eliminate any perceived defects while retaining its overall strengths. Proponents of presidential election reform generally advocate either completely eliminating the electoral college system, replacing it with direct popular election, or repairing perceived defects in the existing system.
Local elections scheduled to take place in England and Wales in the first week of May — including the London mayoral vote — have been postponed as part of attempts to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus in the UK. Following advice from medical experts, the UK government decided to hold off until May Across the English Channel, French president Emmanuel Macron considered cancelling mayoral and municipal elections, but later judged that they should take place as planned. Some lower profile contests might not be mourned by the public during times of major concern, but their absence raises the question of whether other elections should be postponed. Elections have been rescheduled before, of course.
The single transferable vote STV is a voting system designed to achieve or closely approach proportional representation through the use of multiple-member constituencies and each voter casting a single ballot on which candidates are ranked.
The US president has a huge influence on people's lives both at home and abroad, so when the next election is held on 3 November, the outcome will matter to everyone. The US political system is dominated by just two parties, so the president always belongs to one of them. Both men are in their 70s - Mr Trump would be 74 years old at the start of his second term, while at 78, Mr Biden would be the oldest first-term president in history. Both candidates compete to win electoral college votes. Each state gets a certain number of electoral college votes partly based on its population and there are a total of up for grabs, so the winner is the candidate that wins or more. Most states lean heavily towards one party or the other, so the focus is usually on a dozen or so states where either of them could win.
Number of electoral votes allocated to each state. Source: USA. The debate over the continued use of the Electoral College resurfaced during the presidential election , when Donald Trump lost the general election to Hillary Clinton by over 2. The official general election results indicate that Trump received Electoral College votes and Prior to the election, there were four times in US history when a candidate won the presidency despite losing the popular vote: John Quincy Adams over Andrew Jackson , Rutherford B.
The legitimacy of self-government rests on the consent of the governed. In our democratic republic, that consent is manifested through the administration of free and fair elections. But in , our democratic process came under attack from a foreign state seeking to exercise power and influence in U. That was only the beginning.
Мне нужен ключ, - повторила Сьюзан. - У меня его. Отпусти меня! - Он попробовал приподняться, но не смог даже повернуться. В перерывах между сигналами Сьюзан выкрикнула: - Ты - Северная Дакота, Энсей Танкадо передал тебе копию ключа. Он нужен мне немедленно.
Хейл понимал, что говорит полную ерунду, потому что Стратмор никогда не причинит ей вреда, и она это отлично знает. Хейл вгляделся в темноту, выискивая глазами место, где прятался Стратмор. Шеф внезапно замолчал и растворился во тьме. Это пугало Хейла. Он понимал, что времени у него .
Она потянулась к Дэвиду. Это ей снится.
Нацисты сконструировали потрясающую шифровальную машину, которую назвали Энигма. Она была похожа на самую обычную старомодную пишущую машинку с медными взаимосвязанными роторами, вращавшимися сложным образом и превращавшими открытый текст в запутанный набор на первый взгляд бессмысленных групп знаков. Только с помощью еще одной точно так же настроенной шифровальной машины получатель текста мог его прочесть. Беккер слушал как завороженный. Учитель превратился в ученика.
Предмет материализовался как бы ниоткуда, он вылетел из кабинки и ударил убийцу в грудь, из-за чего тот выстрелил раньше времени. Это была сумка Меган. Беккер рванулся. Вобрав голову в плечи, он ударил убийцу всем телом, отшвырнув его на раковину. Со звоном разбилось и покрылось трещинами зеркало.
- Потом в его голосе зазвучали зловещие нотки. - Но как только я узнаю, что вы следите за мной, я немедленно расскажу всю эту историю журналистам. Я расскажу, что Цифровая крепость - это большая липа, и отправлю на дно все ваше мерзкое ведомство.
Захватчики у ворот. Джабба взглянул на экран. - Вот и все! - По его лицу стекали ручейки пота. Последняя защитная стенка на центральном экране почти совсем исчезла. Черные линии, сбившись в кучу вокруг ядра, настолько сгустились, что их масса стала совсем непрозрачной и легонько подрагивала.
Она открыла на экране второе окно и просматривала остальную часть документов Лаборатории вне закона. - В чем дело? - спросил Фонтейн. - Вы что-то нашли.
Он быстро нацарапал на программке ответ и протянул Сьюзан: LDSNN Сьюзан, прочитав, просияла. ME TOO, что означало: Я. Беккер расхохотался. Он дожил до тридцати пяти лет, а сердце у него прыгало, как у влюбленного мальчишки.
Надежда возлагалась на то, что шифры даже с самыми длинными ключами не устоят перед исключительной настойчивостью ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Этот многомиллиардный шедевр использовал преимущество параллельной обработки данных, а также некоторые секретные достижения в оценке открытого текста для определения возможных ключей и взламывания шифров.
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