File Name: central nervous system and peripheral nervous system .zip
The nervous system controls bodily function by gathering sensory input, integrating that information internally, and communicating proper motor output.
The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. This article gives a brief overview of the central nervous system CNS. We will look at the types of cells involved, different regions within the brain, spinal circuitry, and how the CNS can be affected by disease and injury. Here are some key points about the central nervous system. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. The brain is protected by the skull the cranial cavity and the spinal cord travels from the back of the brain, down the center of the spine, stopping in the lumbar region of the lower back.
The brain and spinal cord are both housed within a protective triple-layered membrane called the meninges. The central nervous system has been thoroughly studied by anatomists and physiologists, but it still holds many secrets; it controls our thoughts, movements, emotions, and desires.
It also controls our breathing, heart rate, the release of some hormones, body temperature, and much more. The retina, optic nerve, olfactory nerves, and olfactory epithelium are sometimes considered to be part of the CNS alongside the brain and spinal cord.
This is because they connect directly with brain tissue without intermediate nerve fibers. The brain is the most complex organ in the human body; the cerebral cortex the outermost part of the brain and the largest part by volume contains an estimated 15—33 billion neurons, each of which is connected to thousands of other neurons. In total, around billion neurons and 1, billion glial support cells make up the human brain.
The brain is the central control module of the body and coordinates activity. From physical motion to the secretion of hormones, the creation of memories, and the sensation of emotion.
To carry out these functions, some sections of the brain have dedicated roles. However, many higher functions — reasoning, problem-solving, creativity — involve different areas working together in networks.
Temporal lobe green : important for processing sensory input and assigning it emotional meaning. It is also involved in laying down long-term memories. Some aspects of language perception are also housed here. Occipital lobe purple : visual processing region of the brain, housing the visual cortex.
Parietal lobe yellow : the parietal lobe integrates sensory information including touch, spatial awareness, and navigation.
Touch stimulation from the skin is ultimately sent to the parietal lobe. It also plays a part in language processing. Frontal lobe pink : positioned at the front of the brain, the frontal lobe contains the majority of dopamine-sensitive neurons and is involved in attention, reward, short-term memory, motivation, and planning. Basal ganglia: involved in the control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, and decisions about which motor activities to carry out.
Cerebellum: mostly involved in precise motor control, but also in language and attention. If the cerebellum is damaged, the primary symptom is disrupted motor control, known as ataxia. When damaged, an individual finds it difficult to speak but can still understand speech. Corpus callosum: a broad band of nerve fibers that join the left and right hemispheres. It is the largest white matter structure in the brain and allows the two hemispheres to communicate.
Dyslexic children have smaller corpus callosums; left-handed people, ambidextrous people, and musicians typically have larger ones.
Medulla oblongata: extending below the skull, it is involved in involuntary functions, such as vomiting, breathing, sneezing, and maintaining the correct blood pressure. Hypothalamus: sitting just above the brain stem and roughly the size of an almond, the hypothalamus secretes a number of neurohormones and influences body temperature control, thirst, and hunger.
Thalamus: positioned in the center of the brain, the thalamus receives sensory and motor input and relays it to the rest of the cerebral cortex. It is involved in the regulation of consciousness, sleep, awareness, and alertness.
Amygdala: two almond-shaped nuclei deep within the temporal lobe. They are involved in decision-making, memory, and emotional responses; particularly negative emotions. The spinal cord, running almost the full length of the back, carries information between the brain and body, but also carries out other tasks. Along its length, it connects with the nerves of the peripheral nervous system PNS that run in from the skin, muscles, and joints.
Motor commands from the brain travel from the spine to the muscles and sensory information travels from the sensory tissues — such as the skin — toward the spinal cord and finally up to the brain. The spinal cord contains circuits that control certain reflexive responses, such as the involuntary movement your arm might make if your finger was to touch a flame.
The circuits within the spine can also generate more complex movements such as walking. Even without input from the brain, the spinal nerves can coordinate all of the muscles necessary to walk. For instance, if the brain of a cat is separated from its spine so that its brain has no contact with its body, it will start spontaneously walking when placed on a treadmill.
The brain is only required to stop and start the process, or make changes if, for instance, an object appears in your path. The CNS can be roughly divided into white and gray matter. As a very general rule, the brain consists of an outer cortex of gray matter and an inner area housing tracts of white matter. Both types of tissue contain glial cells, which protect and support neurons. White matter mostly consists of axons nerve projections and oligodendrocytes — a type of glial cell — whereas gray matter consists predominantly of neurons.
Also called neuroglia, glial cells are often called support cells for neurons. In the brain, they outnumber nerve cells 10 to 1. Without glial cells, developing nerves often lose their way and struggle to form functioning synapses. The following are brief descriptions of the CNS glial cell types:. Astrocytes: these cells have numerous projections and anchor neurons to their blood supply.
They also regulate the local environment by removing excess ions and recycling neurotransmitters. Oligodendrocytes: responsible for creating the myelin sheath — this thin layer coats nerve cells, allowing them to send signals quickly and efficiently.
The cranial nerves are 12 pairs of nerves that arise directly from the brain and pass through holes in the skull rather than traveling along the spinal cord. These nerves collect and send information between the brain and parts of the body — mostly the neck and head. Of these 12 pairs, the olfactory and optic nerves arise from the forebrain and are considered part of the central nervous system:.
Olfactory nerves cranial nerve I : transmit information about odors from the upper section of the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulbs on the base of the brain. Optic nerves cranial nerve II : carry visual information from the retina to the primary visual nuclei of the brain. Each optic nerve consists of around 1. Trauma: depending on the site of the injury, symptoms can vary widely from paralysis to mood disorders.
Infections: some micro-organisms and viruses can invade the CNS; these include fungi, such as cryptococcal meningitis; protozoa, including malaria; bacteria, as is the case with leprosy, or viruses. Degeneration: in some cases, the spinal cord or brain can degenerate.
Structural defects: the most common examples are birth defects; including anencephaly, where parts of the skull, brain, and scalp are missing at birth. Tumors: both cancerous and noncancerous tumors can impact parts of the central nervous system. Both types can cause damage and yield an array of symptoms depending on where they develop. Stroke: a stroke is an interruption of blood supply to the brain; the resulting lack of oxygen causes tissue to die in the affected area.
The term peripheral nervous system PNS refers to any part of the nervous system that lies outside of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is separate from the peripheral nervous system, although the two systems are interconnected. The nerve axons of the CNS — the slender projections of nerve cells that carry impulses — are much shorter.
PNS nerve axons can be up to 1 meter long for instance, the nerve that activates the big toe whereas, within the CNS, they are rarely longer than a few millimeters. Much of the PNS has the ability to regenerate; if a nerve in your finger is severed, it can regrow. The CNS, however, does not have this ability. The components of the central nervous system are further split into a myriad of parts. Below, we will describe some of these sections in a little more detail.
Thought blocking occurs when someone suddenly stops talking for no clear reason. There are a number of possible causes. Learn more here.
All about the central nervous system. Medically reviewed by Seunggu Han, M. What is the CNS? Brain Spinal cord White and gray matter Central glial cells Cranial nerves CNS diseases The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. Fast facts on the central nervous system Here are some key points about the central nervous system. The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the most complex organ in the body and uses 20 percent of the total oxygen we breathe in.
The brain consists of an estimated billion neurons, with each connected to thousands more. The brain can be divided into four main lobes: temporal, parietal, occipital and frontal. What is the central nervous system? The brain. Spinal cord. Share on Pinterest The spinal cord carries information from the brain to the rest of the body.
White and gray matter. Central glial cells. Cranial nerves. Central nervous system diseases. Resilience in the age of global crises: How can we cultivate it?
The nervous system is a network of cells called neurons that coordinate actions and transmit signals between different parts of the body. The nervous system is an organ system that coordinates voluntary and involuntary actions and responses by transmitting signals between different parts of our bodies. Central to the functioning of the nervous system is an extensive network of specialized cells called neurons. Neurons feature many thin projecting fibers called axons, which penetrate deep into tissues. They are able to communicate with other cells by chemical or electrical means at synapses. Neuronal function is supported by neuroglia, specialized cells which provide nutrition, mechanical support, and protection.
Types of cells. The two parts are the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous. The central nervous system or the CNS contains the brain and the spinal cord. All together, the brain and the spinal cord serve the nervous system's command station. When the sensory input reaches the CNS, the spinal cord and the brain figure outs what it exactly means.
–Consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves. –Serves as a critical link between the body and the central nervous system. –peripheral.
The nervous system transmits signals between the brain and the rest of the body, including internal organs. The human brain contains about billion neurons. Bundles of axons, called nerves, are found throughout the body. Axons and dendrites allow neurons to communicate, even across long distances.
The peripheral nervous system PNS is one of two components that make up the nervous system of bilateral animals , with the other part being the central nervous system CNS. The PNS consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. In the somatic nervous system, the cranial nerves are part of the PNS with the exception of the optic nerve cranial nerve II , along with the retina.
What exactly is the peripheral nervous system and what role does it play in the body? First, it is important to realize that the nervous system is divided into two parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system includes all of the nerves that branch out from the brain and spinal cord and extend to other parts of the body including muscles and organs. Each part of the system plays a vital role in how information is communicated throughout the body. The peripheral nervous system PNS is the division of the nervous system containing all the nerves that lie outside of the central nervous system CNS.
The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord.
In biology , the nervous system is a highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its actions and sensory information by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the body, then works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to such events. The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The PNS consists mainly of nerves , which are enclosed bundles of the long fibers or axons , that connect the CNS to every other part of the body. Nerves that transmit signals from the brain are called motor or efferent nerves, while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sensory or afferent.
Не коснувшись краев, он вытащил из нее ключ Медеко. - Поразительно, - пробурчал он, - что сотрудникам лаборатории систем безопасности ничего об этом не известно. ГЛАВА 47 - Шифр ценой в миллиард долларов? - усмехнулась Мидж, столкнувшись с Бринкерхоффом в коридоре. - Ничего. - Клянусь, - сказал. Она смотрела на него с недоумением. - Надеюсь, это не уловка с целью заставить меня скинуть платье.
- И тут же доложите. ГЛАВА 34 Сьюзан сидела одна в помещении Третьего узла, ожидая возвращения Следопыта. Хейл решил выйти подышать воздухом, за что она была ему безмерно благодарна. Однако одиночество не принесло ей успокоения. В голове у Сьюзан беспрестанно крутилась мысль о контактах Танкадо с Хейлом. Кто будет охранять охранников.
У дальней стены дрожали включенные на полную мощность динамики, и даже самые неистовые танцоры не могли подойти к ним ближе чем на десять метров. Беккер заткнул уши и оглядел толпу. Куда бы ни падал его взгляд, всюду мелькали красно-бело-синие прически. Тела танцующих слились так плотно, что он не мог рассмотреть, во что они одеты. Британского флага нигде не было .
Теперь, считали они, им уже нечего было опасаться, представ перед Большим жюри, услышать собственный записанный на пленку голос как доказательство давно забытого телефонного разговора, перехваченного спутником АНБ. Никогда еще получение разведывательной информации не было столь легким делом. Шифры, перехваченные АНБ, вводились в ТРАНСТЕКСТ и через несколько минуты выплевывались из машины в виде открытого текста. Секретов отныне больше не существовало. Чтобы еще больше усилить впечатление о своей некомпетентности, АНБ подвергло яростным нападкам программы компьютерного кодирования, утверждая, что они мешают правоохранительным службам ловить и предавать суду преступников.
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- Штрафная санкция. На центральном экране прямо под извещением об ошибке ВР представила зрителям ужасающую картину. По мере того как рушилась третья защитная стенка, полдюжины черных линий, эти хакеры-мародеры, устремлялись вперед, неуклонно продвигаясь к сердцевине.
Он подумал о Сьюзан. Но тут же в голову пришли слова Стратмора: Найдите кольцо. Беккер в отчаянии плюхнулся на скамейку и задумался о том, что делать .
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