File Name: role of vocational and technical education in alleviating unemployment in kenya .zip
Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer. Abstract Millions of the youth world over remains unemployed; furthermore, the phenomenon is on the increase.
Youth unemployment has increased in many industrialized countries following the recent global recession. However, this reflects not only the cyclical shock, but also the crucial role of institutions in structuring the transition from school to work.
Vocational training, in particular in a dual form combining vocational schooling and structured learning on-the-job, is often considered to be one of the most important policy solutions in combating youth unemployment. The evidence available supports this perception, but the institutional requirements of a successful training system also have to be taken into account from a policy perspective.
Vocational education and training at the secondary level can ease the transition from school to work while supplying employers with trained workers. Dual vocational training, which combines structured learning on-the-job with classroom training, leads to certified skills that are relevant to employers and portable in the labor market. Countries with strong vocational training programs are in a better position to avoid rising youth unemployment, even in difficult times.
A successful dual vocational training system is not easy to implement on a large scale because it requires complex institutional and cultural foundations. To be sustainable and have a major impact, dual vocational training needs to be actively supported by a sufficient number of employers, trade unions, and policymakers, which takes time to develop.
Vocational training is not a panacea or a quick fix to bring down high youth unemployment. If tailored to the needs of employers and the labor market, dual vocational education and structured on-the-job learning programs can smooth entry into the labor market for young people compared with an academic high school education alone. Establishing a dual vocational training model is a demanding task, however, and cannot be seen as a quick fix for high youth unemployment.
Structural reforms to revive the economy and reduce entry barriers to employment are also needed. Since most countries already have some form of vocational training program they could start with existing elements to bring vocational education and training closer to employer and labor market needs.
The youth unemployment situation deteriorated the most in countries where young people already had had difficulty transitioning into the labor market even before the crisis.
But some countries were able to weather the storm and to keep youth unemployment low. These last three countries all have dual vocational training systems, which combine vocational schooling and structured learning on the job.
These summary statistics suggest why vocational education and training at the secondary level is frequently perceived as the solution for improving the opportunities of youths to acquire skills that are valuable in the labor market and can help them begin a sustainable employment trajectory.
A first glance at data on vocational enrollment shares and on young people not in employment, education, or training Figure 1 gives at least some hint at a relation between the two indicators.
Thus, youth exclusion tends to be higher where vocational training shares are low. However, a deeper investigation into the details of this relationship is needed. The relevance of vocational education and training varies considerably across clusters of countries and depends on complex institutional arrangements .
Some countries have a large vocational schooling component as part of their upper secondary education system. This is the case for most southern European countries, including France, Italy, and Spain, and for some eastern European countries.
In those countries, the schooling system is divided into a general education track and a vocational education track. While the general education track aims to provide youth with general, often academically-oriented knowledge as the basis for a university education, vocational education and training aims to provide youth with practice-oriented knowledge and skills to prepare them for particular occupations.
Most frequently, vocational education and training follows a formal curriculum that combines general with occupational knowledge. Compulsory schooling integrates vocational education and training as an alternative to an academically-oriented schooling track or as part of several post-compulsory education options. Both the academic and the vocational tracks tend to impart general knowledge and skills.
Thus, the skills provided by vocational schools are often transferable between employers, although the degree of transferability across occupations can vary . In many countries, the vocational option is frequently seen as a safety net for students with poor academic performance who are at risk of dropping out of school and for students who are less academically inclined.
The close link to work tasks and hands-on practical experience is expected to motivate more practically-oriented youths to continue training and remain in school longer. However, because the share of students who enter academic education after vocational schooling is very low, the vocational schooling option is often seen as a dead-end track and a second-choice education. In some countries, vocational education and training is provided through formal apprenticeships, with institutional instruction complementing workplace training.
For example, the vocational schooling reform in the UK, the Apprenticeship, Skills, Children, and Learning Act, aimed at tightening the link between apprenticeships and employers and increasing incentives for employers to expand training activities. In the UK implemented the Specification of Apprenticeship Standards for England, which sought to harmonize the qualifications of different apprenticeships and increase transparency in training activities.
In addition, grants were made available to employers to support this initiative. By devoting time to both theoretical instruction and work-based training, the US apprenticeship model aims to provide both general and occupation-specific knowledge.
However, training in this apprenticeship system is focused at the firm level and functions without close links to the formal education system.
Only a few countries—Austria, Denmark, Germany, and Switzerland—accommodate a major share of all secondary school graduates in dual vocational and educational training that combines vocational schooling and structured learning on-the-job. First, they have a high degree of formalization. The training is provided in centrally accredited occupational qualification institutions, where the training content is continuously adapted to meet changing labor market requirements.
Second, there is strong and long-standing involvement by social partners, including regional trade and occupational committees, through advisory boards that assist in developing and maintaining curricula and monitoring outcomes. Third, vocational colleges, financed by the government, provide the school-based part of dual vocational education and training, which covers both general and occupation-specific education. And fourth, participating firms must meet certain technical standards to obtain accreditation.
In these vocational education and training systems, offering apprenticeships is optional for companies, but companies that choose to offer them follow standard application procedures to match firms and trainees. The companies cover the training costs within the firm . While dual vocational education and training offers several benefits from a societal and individual perspective, establishing an efficient dual apprenticeship system depends on the willingness of a sufficient share of employers to participate actively in training young people.
To ensure the transferability of skills across firms after graduation from apprenticeships, the training also needs to include an adequate amount of general schooling. As trainees could potentially leave a firm after completing training, thereby reaping all of the benefits of their acquired general skills, trainees must bear at least part of the general training costs in order for firms to continue to provide both specific and general training.
In countries like Germany, a collective agreement sets a generally applied remuneration rate for apprentices that is considerably below the wage for a full-time, low-paying job. This model can reconcile economic incentives for the apprentice and the employer. The apprentice benefits from moderate earnings and structured training that will facilitate promotion to a regular and better-paying job after the vocational education and training exams, while the employer receives some productive input from trainees even in the early phase of vocational training.
The dual apprenticeship system is more likely to succeed in countries where firms can credibly commit to provide relevant training in an apprenticeship program that includes apprenticeship regulation and external accreditation, and in which employer associations promote dual training and the government funds general vocational schools. How do the outcomes of dual vocational education and training systems compare with the outcomes of general education systems or those focusing on other types of vocational training?
There is no easy answer, given the variation both across and within countries and studies. Institutional and cultural differences across countries, as well as differences in the amount of information on workers, jobs, and labor market characteristics available in the data sets used for analysis, explain some differences in findings.
Several technical problems with the literature are difficult to overcome . Most of the research compares the employment outcomes for vocational education and training graduates with the outcomes for an alternative group. These groups typically include general education students, students in other vocational education and training tracks, school dropouts, or college graduates in the same country, after controlling for all observable characteristics for which data are available.
However, unobserved heterogeneity may still exist between categories of young people, given that people who opt for vocational education and training may have different abilities, tastes, and preferences about work than people who choose an alternative education system or no education.
A related concern arises from the fact that different occupations require differing mixes of academic and practical skills. If young people self-select into occupations based on their skills, evaluating the effectiveness of the different training and education systems becomes difficult, considering that the employment patterns, payment structures, and union coverage in the occupations themselves may not be comparable.
Because of a lack of exogenous changes in the institutional setting, most of the country studies of vocational education and training programs use descriptive analyses.
The studies control for student characteristics to capture the expected outcomes of the alternative forms of schooling, including grades and test scores, family background, and local economic conditions. Additional variables include subjective statements of preferences for vocational education and training or academic studies, self-assessments of ability, information on the vocational orientation of the school as embodied in full-time vocational teachers, and the schooling choices of previous cohorts of students.
Measurement issues must also be taken into account in studies comparing the effectiveness of different types of vocational education and training systems across countries. The covariation of other relevant institutional factors, the absence of a unified framework for defining particular training options, and differences in data coverage and quality frequently bias cross-country studies of the relative effectiveness of dual vocational education and training systems and school-based systems.
However, in most countries one system dominates the other, the reason for which is probably correlated with the labor market structure, thus adding another source of endogeneity.
Reliable empirical evidence assessing the returns to school-based vocational education is limited, due mainly to the lack of appropriate data. In many countries, students negatively select into the vocational schooling track, which leads to systematic underestimation of vocational training effects when the selection is unaccounted for.
Most of the evidence indicates that young people completing school-based vocational education and training do as well as and sometimes better than if they had remained in purely academic studies. Some studies find that school-based vocational education and training is most effective when there is a strong match between the vocational training area and the occupations graduates later enter.
Additionally, vocational training is more effective when it is offered to students of low academic performance and those who work in low-skill jobs. A number of studies providing evidence on labor market returns to vocational education in the US show positive effects in the short to medium term. They also find that for later cohorts, returns to attending technical schooling have increased over time.
One study of differences in the returns to vocational training during the s, s, and s for high school graduates who did not attend college finds a positive trend over time .
It remains unclear whether this occurred because of increased quality in education or an increase in demand for these skills. These positive wage and employment effects of having graduated from the vocational track are confirmed by other studies.
The studies note that the increasing returns to vocational training in the US are most likely explained by a growing need for these types of skills during the s and s. Accounting for self-selection in track choice, a study finds that students on the technical or academic track are better off following the path they choose, suggesting that vocational education and training provides a valuable alternative for youth aiming to work in technical occupations .
Using data on high school qualifications in Israel, a study finds that school-based vocational education and training is beneficial only when there is a good match between the training and the occupation of graduates .
However, the study finds no significant earnings differences between vocational high school graduates with unmatched jobs and academic high school graduates. Some studies offer evidence of differential rates of return to vocational education. A study for the UK using a variety of data sets, accounting for the time taken to acquire different qualifications, and controlling when possible for ability bias and measurement error finds that the returns to school-based vocational education vary with the type of qualification obtained .
The returns to academic qualifications are higher if graduates subsequently acquire a skilled rather than an unskilled job. The returns to vocational qualifications are significantly higher for low-ability individuals. Some studies that exploit a reform in the vocational education and training system to compare the effects of school-based vocational training and general academic education do not find any impact of adding another year of general education for students in the vocational training track.
For example, a study analyzing reforms in the Netherlands in that extended by a year the general academic component of the vocational education and training program finds that the change has no effect on wages 20 years later . In addition, a study for Sweden analyzed a policy change in that increased the general education content of vocational schooling at the upper secondary level by one year, after which students were eligible to enroll in higher education .
Exploiting random differences in time and the regional implementation of a policy pilot, the study does not find any effects on subsequent continuation of study nor any increase in the wages earned up to 16 years after the beginning of upper secondary school. However, the study does find that low-achieving students are significantly more likely to drop out of upper secondary education after the reform. An Italian study analyzing differences in early labor market outcomes between students in vocational and educational programs and students in general secondary schooling finds that the selection into each track is strongly related to parental background and ability.
Going beyond that, a French study estimates both short- and long-term effects of the vocational and general schooling tracks . Controlling for non-random selection, the study finds that technical education has a similar effect to that of a general education on the swiftness of entry into the first job. However, five years after entering the labor market, youths with lower levels of vocational schooling earn less than those who graduated from the academic schooling track. The study further finds that social networks are one channel through which participants in the lower- or medium-level vocational schooling track gain faster entry into employment, although this network effect fades over time.
Rigorous quantitative evidence on the effectiveness of apprenticeship schemes is scarce, even in countries where apprenticeships are widespread. The study also finds sectoral differences, with higher returns for men working in manufacturing industries than in the service sector.
Although the unemployment rate fell from 6. The Indonesian government is, therefore, aiming for an extensive modernisation and expansion of the TVET system. The Presidential Instruction adopted in September contains instructions related to ministries and other state institutions to initiate a comprehensive and ambitious reform agenda in the field of TVET. It addresses 34 governors and eleven ministries responsible for TVET development and implementation. This fragmented condition holds up the development of TVET. Coordination and collaboration among all key TVET stakeholders including the private sectors are necessary to overcome the obstacles in the TVET development. Relevant private and public actors at national level have implemented key elements of the Indonesian government's reform agenda on technical and vocational education and training.
unemployment in Kenya, the role of education and training, the system of THE ROLE OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN ALLEVIATING VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM.
Youth unemployment has increased in many industrialized countries following the recent global recession. However, this reflects not only the cyclical shock, but also the crucial role of institutions in structuring the transition from school to work. Vocational training, in particular in a dual form combining vocational schooling and structured learning on-the-job, is often considered to be one of the most important policy solutions in combating youth unemployment.
In the last article we looked at how advanced training programs can benefit companies and employers. From increased productivity and innovation over higher employee retention to knowledge transfer within the company, there are plenty of good reasons to invest in additional education for your staff. But not only is it a smart move for employers to offer training opportunities, it is an equally good idea for their workers to embrace them.
Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. The reason for conducting this research was to suggest some solutions that can contribute towards resolving the problem of high unemployment prevailing in Lusaka province, Zambia emanating from underdevelopment.
А потом медленно скрылась из виду в клубах пара. - Отчаянный парень, - пробормотал Хейл себе под нос. Он знал, что задумал Чатрукьян. Отключение ТРАНСТЕКСТА было логичным шагом в случае возникновения чрезвычайной ситуации, а ведь тот был уверен, что в машину проник вирус. К несчастью, это был самый надежный способ собрать в шифровалке всех сотрудников Отдела обеспечения системной безопасности. После таких экстренных действий на главном коммутаторе раздавался сигнал общей тревоги. Проверку шифровалки службой безопасности Хейл допустить не .
Да нет, конечно! - Клушар почему-то улыбнулся. - Какой смысл хлестать мертвую кобылу. Парень был уже мертв, когда прибыла скорая. Они пощупали пульс и увезли его, оставив меня один на один с этим идиотом-полицейским. Странно, - подумал Беккер, - интересно, откуда же взялся шрам. Но он тут же выбросил эту мысль из головы и перешел к главному. - А что с кольцом? - спросил он как можно более безразличным тоном.
Что бы ни случилось, коммандер Тревор Стратмор всегда будет надежным ориентиром в мире немыслимых решений. - Так ты со мной, Сьюзан? - спросил. Сьюзан улыбнулась: - Да, сэр. На сто процентов. - Отлично.
Она? - Беккер рассмеялся. Он не заметил в АНБ ни одного существа женского пола. - Вас это смущает? - раздался у него за спиной звонкий голос.
Сьюзан ни слова не сказала об истинной причине своей беседы с Дэвидом Беккером - о том, что она собиралась предложить ему место в Отделе азиатской криптографии. Судя по той увлеченности, с которой молодой профессор говорил о преподавательской работе, из университета он не уйдет. Сьюзан решила не заводить деловых разговоров, чтобы не портить настроение ни ему ни. Она снова почувствовала себя школьницей.
Все это было лишено всякого смысла. - Сьюзан, ты должна мне помочь. Стратмор убил Чатрукьяна. Я видел это своими глазами. Его слова не сразу дошли до ее сознания.
В девяноста футах внизу, распростертый на острых лопастях главного генератора, лежал Фил Чатрукьян. Тело его обгорело и почернело. Упав, он устроил замыкание основного электропитания шифровалки.
Речь идет о засекреченной информации, хранящейся в личном помещении директора. Ты только представь себе, что будет, если об этом станет известно. - Директор в Южной Америке. - Извини. Я не могу этого сделать.
Иного рода? - Сьюзан смотрела на него вопрошающе. Невзламываемый шифр - математическая бессмыслица. Он это отлично знает.
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