File Name: partition of india and pakistan 1947 .zip
At the time, few people understood what Partition would entail or what its results would be, and the migration on the enormous scale that followed took the vast majority of contemporaries by surprise. The main vehicle for nationalist activity was the Indian National Congress, whose best-known leaders included Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. Under imperial rule, they had grown accustomed to having their minority status protected by a system of reserved legislative seats and separate electorates. The prospect of losing this protection as independence drew closer worried more and more Muslims, first in parts of northern India, and then, after World War II, in the influential Muslim-majority provinces of Bengal and Punjab. When Britain took India into the war without consultation in , Congress opposed it; large nationalist protests ensued, culminating in the Quit India movement, a mass movement against British rule. For their part in it, Gandhi and Nehru and thousands of Congress workers were imprisoned until
Il also provided for the complete end of British control over the Indian affairs from 15 August The power to rule from British was fully and finally transferred to the two dominions. Bloodshed and violence marked thc exodus of refugees. In October , a Pathan tribal forcc entered Kashmir with Pakistani backing. The boundaries of Pakistan emerged on the map of the world in This was accomplished on the basis of the two-nation theory. In l , Sir C.
Download documents and transcripts. The purpose of this document collection is to allow students and teachers to develop their own lines of historical enquiry or historical questions using original documents on this period of history. Students could work with a group of sources or particular document series which identifies a certain theme. Of course the sources offer students a chance to develop their powers of evaluation and analysis and support their course work. These documents can be used to support any of the exam board specifications covering the history of Indian Independence in 20th century for example:. In this unit students are required to carry out their historical enquiry and also make links between modern representations of this period of history. The documents in this collection can be used to support this unit.
In August, , when, after three hundred years in India, the British finally left, the subcontinent was partitioned into two independent nation states: Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan. Immediately, there began one of the greatest migrations in human history, as millions of Muslims trekked to West and East Pakistan the latter now known as Bangladesh while millions of Hindus and Sikhs headed in the opposite direction. Many hundreds of thousands never made it. Across the Indian subcontinent, communities that had coexisted for almost a millennium attacked each other in a terrifying outbreak of sectarian violence, with Hindus and Sikhs on one side and Muslims on the other—a mutual genocide as unexpected as it was unprecedented. Some seventy-five thousand women were raped, and many of them were then disfigured or dismembered.
The Partition of India of was the division of British India [c] into two independent dominion states, India and Pakistan. The partition involved the division of two provinces, Bengal and Punjab , based on district-wise non-Muslim or Muslim majorities. The partition was outlined in the Indian Independence Act and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj , or Crown rule in India. The two self-governing countries of India and Pakistan legally came into existence at midnight on 15 August
С мобильника, - мысленно повторил Нуматака. - Это кое-что. К счастью для японской экономики, у американцев оказался ненасытный аппетит к электронным новинкам.
- Попробуем еще… Кухня. - Спальня, - без колебаний отозвался. Сьюзан смутилась. - Хорошо, а что, если… кошка.
Мы должны немедленно вырубить электроснабжение. Немедленно. Казалось, на директора его слова не произвели впечатления.
В воздухе пахло жженой пластмассой. Вообще говоря, это была не комната, а рушащееся убежище: шторы горели, плексигласовые стены плавились.
Я уверен. Вы должны… Сьюзан вырвала руку и посмотрела на него с возмущением. - Мне кажется, коммандер приказал вам уйти.
Он открывал секрет, открывал ключ к шифру-убийце - умоляя, чтобы люди его поняли… моля Бога, чтобы его секрет вовремя достиг агентства. - Три, - прошептала она, словно оглушенная. - Три! - раздался крик Дэвида из Испании.
Травматическая пуля, - задумчиво повторил Беккер. - Вот откуда шрам. - Весьма сомнительно, чтобы Танкадо связал свои ощущения с выстрелом.
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