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History Of Jammu And Kashmir Pdf

history of jammu and kashmir pdf

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Jammu and Kashmir , union territory of India until October 31, , a state , located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent in the vicinity of the Karakoram and westernmost Himalayan mountain ranges. The territory is part of the larger region of Kashmir , which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan , and China since the partition of the subcontinent in Legislation passed in August set the stage for downgrading Jammu and Kashmir from statehood to union territory status and splitting off a part of it, known as the Ladakh region, into a separate union territory. The change went into effect on October 31 of that year, though several court cases affecting its status remained pending. The information that follows describes the former state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the Ladakh region.

Jammu and Kashmir (princely state)

Kashmir , region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent. It is bounded by the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang to the northeast and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the east both parts of China , by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south, by Pakistan to the west, and by Afghanistan to the northwest. The region, with a total area of some 85, square miles , square km , has been the subject of dispute between India and Pakistan since the partition of the Indian subcontinent in The northern and western portions are administered by Pakistan and comprise three areas: Azad Kashmir , Gilgit , and Baltistan , the last two being part of a territory called the Northern Areas. Administered by India are the southern and southeastern portions, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.

History: Central Asia: Kashmir

Download the free ebook from the download link given below:. This is all from us in this blog, Jammu and Kashmir History Questions. Download the free ebook from the above link given. Also, stay tuned with Oliveboard for more exam related information. Leave a comment Cancel reply Comment Name Email.

The history of Kashmir is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of Central Asia , South Asia and East Asia. Historically, Kashmir referred to the Kashmir Valley. In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later in the ninth century, Shaivism arose. Islamization in Kashmir took place during 13th to 15th century and led to the eventual decline of the Kashmir Shaivism in Kashmir. However, the achievements of the previous civilizations were not lost. For the next five centuries, Muslim monarchs ruled Kashmir, including the Mughal Empire , who ruled from until , and the Afghan Durrani Empire , which ruled from until

history of jammu and kashmir pdf

3 Brief History. C hapter. III. 3 The First Three Maharajas. C hapter. IV. 4 Modern santaclarapueblolibrary.org Kashmir. IlLUSTRATIONS. r Territorial Map of Jammu and Kashmir.


Article 370: A Constitutional History of Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir came into being as a single political and geographical entity following the Treaty of Amritsar between the British Government and Maharaja Gulab Singh signed on March 16, Thus a new State comprising three distinct religions of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh was formed with Maharaja Gulab Singh as its founder ruler. The feudal dispensation in the State, however, was too harsh for the people to live under and towards the end of a hundred years of this rule when their Indian brethren were fighting for independence from the British under the inspiring leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Kashmiris led by a towering personality, the Sher-I-Kashmir Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah, rose against the autocracy.

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The history of Kashmir is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of Central Asia , South Asia and East Asia. Historically, Kashmir referred to the Kashmir Valley. In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Buddhism and later of Hinduism; later in the ninth century, Shaivism arose. Islamization in Kashmir took place during 13th to 15th century and led to the eventual decline of the Kashmir Shaivism in Kashmir. However, the achievements of the previous civilizations were not lost. For the next five centuries, Muslim monarchs ruled Kashmir, including the Mughal Empire , who ruled from until , and the Afghan Durrani Empire , which ruled from until

These are the core obsessions that drive our newsroom—defining topics of seismic importance to the global economy. Our emails are made to shine in your inbox, with something fresh every morning, afternoon, and weekend. Those against this provision, Article , have argued that all three parts of the state—the Muslim-dominated Kashmir valley, the Hindu-majority Jammu, and Ladakh, which has considerable Buddhist presence—should not have laws independent of the Indian constitution. The Quit Kashmir movement against the maharaja is launched. August India gains independence from the British empire, Pakistan is created as a Muslim-majority country. Indian home minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel works to convince the undecided princely states to join India; Maharaja Hari Singh signs a standstill agreement with Pakistan , effectively opting for status quo.

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At the time of the partition of India and the political integration of India , Hari Singh , the ruler of the state, delayed making a decision about the future of his state. However, an uprising in the western districts of the state followed by an attack by raiders from the neighbouring Northwest Frontier Province , supported by Pakistan, forced his hand. On 26 October , Hari Singh acceded to India in return for the Indian military being airlifted to Kashmir to engage the Pakistan-supported forces, starting the Kashmir conflict [4] The western and northern districts presently known as Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan passed to the control of Pakistan, while the remaining territory remained under Indian control as the Indian-administered union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. There is a fringe of level land along the Punjab frontier, bordered by a plinth of low hilly country sparsely wooded, broken, and irregular. This is known as the Kandi, the home of the Chibs and the Dogras. This is a temperate country with forests of oak, rhododendron, chestnut, and higher up, of deodar and pine, a country of uplands, such as Bhadarwah and Kishtwar, drained by the deep gorge of the Chenab river. The steps of the Himalayan range, known as the Pir Panjal , lead to the second story, on which rests the valley of Kashmir, drained by the Jhelum river.

Jammu and Kashmir , union territory of India until October 31, , a state , located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent in the vicinity of the Karakoram and westernmost Himalayan mountain ranges. The territory is part of the larger region of Kashmir , which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan , and China since the partition of the subcontinent in Legislation passed in August set the stage for downgrading Jammu and Kashmir from statehood to union territory status and splitting off a part of it, known as the Ladakh region, into a separate union territory. The change went into effect on October 31 of that year, though several court cases affecting its status remained pending. The information that follows describes the former state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the Ladakh region.

In October , the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir signed the instrument of accession to India with certain concession for state for state autonomy. This special state for the state and its residents was ensuring in article of Indian Constitution.

Все, что я могу, - это проверить статистику, посмотреть, чем загружен ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Слава Богу, разрешено хоть. Стратмор требовал запретить всяческий доступ, но Фонтейн настоял на. - В шифровалке нет камер слежения? - удивился Бринкерхофф. - А что, - спросила она, не отрываясь от монитора, - нам с Кармен нужно укромное местечко.

Они были похожи на сперматозоиды, стремящиеся проникнуть в неподатливую яйцеклетку. - Пора, ребята! - Джабба повернулся к директору.  - Мне необходимо решение. Или мы начинаем отключение, или же мы никогда этого не сделаем.

Беккер нахмурился. Слова Стратмора эхом звучали в его ушах. Мне нужно все, что было у Танкадо при .

Ну, мне было все равно. Я просто хотела от него избавиться. - Когда вы отдали ей кольцо.

1 Comments

  1. Chris A.

    28.04.2021 at 15:24
    Reply

    Kashmir has history of years, intermittently ruled by outsiders.

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