File Name: enflo regional and industrial growth patterns in 20th century western europe .zip
The credit system in the growth process of post-World War II Italy has often been dismissed as a waste of money or ancillary to industrialization at best. This paper provides evidence of both an industrialization strategy driven by credit deepening and the beneficial role played by credit systems in growth. By using a new data set of long-run loans to industrial manufacturing sectors, broken down by area, we find in the long run a strong and positive effect of credit deepening on the value added per worker in the Italian economy during the Golden Age — The role of financial intermediation in the growth process is a matter for debate in the economic literature. A developed financial sector can stimulate economic growth in several ways: optimal allocation of savings, reduction of risk, promotion of competition, and enhanced capacity for firms to finance investments in physical capital and technology.
This study examines the factors that shaped the long-term evolution of the information and communication technology ICT industry in Sweden, — Using a new historical microdatabase on actual innovation output, the driving forces and technological interdependencies in the third industrial revolution are chronicled. The results of this study support some stylized facts about technological Interdependencies in general-purpose technologies: a closely knitted set of industries has provided positive and negative driving forces for the development of ICT innovations. The historical evolution of GPTs can in this perspective be described as a sequence of development blocks. What forces shape the long-term evolution of technological systems?
In this chapter, I estimate French regional gross value added per capita in constant terms between and , to better understand regional inequalities within the country and to allow comparison with other European regions. To this end, I develop a novel regional income estimation model, where income is specified as a function of shifts in sectoral employment structure. Its conceptual basis is uncontroversial, its data requirements are low, and it withstands robustness checks. Caruana-Galizia, P. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Report bugs here.
Start Search. Search Results. Hits on this site 0 All results within Lund University This thesis deals with various aspects of growth, convergence and technological change, all analysed from an empirical perspective. A common theme throughout the six chapters is the analysis of economic historical questions of productivity…. Sweden experienced a decline in inter-county real wage differentials for agricultural workers between and , historical evidence of early labour market integration well before widespread unionization in agriculture occurred. Productivity and employment-Is there a trade-off?
in the density of population and economic activity, the spread of industry and services and inequality, similar to the finding of a U-shaped pattern of personal income inequality. The Economic Development of Europe's Regions: A Quantitative development during the 20th century – and of economic development more.
Universitat de Barcelona, Spain. Paul M Romer, Barro, R. Robert J. Barro, Robert J.
Gender discrimination — in the form of sex-selective abortion, female infanticide and the mortal neglect of young girls — constitutes a pervasive feature of many contemporary developing countries, especially in South and East Asia. Although the conventional narrative argues that there is little evidence for this kind of behaviour here , my research shows that this issue was much more important than previously thought, especially but not exclusively in Southern and Eastern Europe. It should be noted first that historical sex ratios cannot be compared directly to modern ones. The biological survival advantage of girls was more visible in the high-mortality environments that characterised pre-industrial Europe.
rather than national level, using urbanization rates and GDP per urbanization and growth over the 20th century after controlling for the Department of Economic History, Lund University: [email protected] relationship in Western and Central Europe compared to Southern and Northern Europe.
In many countries, regional income inequality has followed an inverted U-shaped curve, growing during industrialization and market integration and declining thereafter. By contrast, Sweden's regional inequality dropped from to and did not exhibit this U-shaped pattern. Accordingly, today's regional income inequality in Sweden is lower than in other European countries. We note that the prime mover behind the long-run reduction in regional income differentials was structural change, whereas neoclassical and technological forces played a relatively less important role. However, this process of regional income convergence can be divided into three major periods.
This article report findings from a new dataset that consists of productivity and employment variables from 89 Western European regions and 51 American states and districts from to Distribution dynamics is used to investigate convergence in labor productivity, Gross Value Added GVA per capita, and employment ratios. Main findings are that European labor productivity and GVA per capita have converged more or less continuously since , but that the European employment ratios show divergence after
После минутного упорства ему придется уступить. Но если я вызову агентов безопасности, весь мой план рухнет, - подумал. Хейл сдавил горло Сьюзан немного сильнее, и она вскрикнула от боли. - Ну что, вы решили.
Беккер получил четкие инструкции: ни к чему не прикасаться, ничего не читать. Просто все привезти. Абсолютно .
До апельсиновых деревьев не меньше ста метров. Никаких шансов. Боль в боку усилилась.
Крошечные частички пыли, пленницы мощной системы деионизации купола, простодушно устремлялись вверх широкой спиралью. Наклонные стены помещения, образуя вверху широкую арку, на уровне глаз были практически вертикальными. Затем они приобретали как бы полупрозрачность, завершаясь у пола непроницаемой чернотой - посверкивающей черной глазурью кафеля, отливавшей жутковатым сиянием, создававшим какое-то тревожное ощущение прозрачности пола. Черный лед. В центре помещения из пола торчала, подобно носу исполинской торпеды, верхняя часть машины, ради которой было возведено все здание.
Разве Дэвид тебе не объяснил. Она была слишком возбуждена, чтобы ответить. Испания. Так вот почему Дэвид отложил поездку в Стоун-Мэнор.
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