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Harvard Business School Online's Business Insights Blog provides the career insights you need to achieve your goals and gain confidence in your business skills. No matter your industry, role, or background, learning about financial accounting can benefit your career. Here are five steps to take as you begin your education. Begin your financial accounting education by learning how to read and analyze three key financial statements: the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement. The relationship between these components is illustrated in the accounting equation , which is used to verify the balance sheet is correct and balanced.
The important users of financial statements d. Basic assumptions of financial statements e. Important terms in financial accounting Introduction: Accounting basics will introduce you to some of thefundamentalAccounting principles, concepts, and Terminology. Basically, the main purpose of Financial Accounting is to provide useful Financial information to people or groups both inside and outside of companies often called external users.
Who Uses Financial Accounting? The ultimate goal of financial accounting is to compile business transactions and other input documents like invoices and sales receipts in the form of general purpose financial statements that can be understood by external users.
The key concept here is that external users must be able to understand and use this financial information when they are making decisions about the company. They will participate in the profits and losses of the company. Participation in the losses might be limited or unlimited depending upon the type of organisation.
They do not possess any ownership rights. However, they would lend money at some interest rate. To be precise, accounting is about tracking a business. The end product of the financial accounting process is a set of reports that are called financial statements.
To begin with, lets us understand some basic Accounting Terms. Basic Accounting Terms: In order to understand the subject matter clearly, one must grasp the following common expressionsalways used in business accounting. The aim here is to enable the student to understand with theseoften used concepts before we embark on accounting procedures and rules.
The event can be measured in terms of money and changes the financialposition of a person e. Transaction could be a cashtransaction or credit transaction. When the parties settle the transaction immediately by makingpayment in cash or by cheque, it is called a cash transaction.
In credit transaction, the paymentis settled at a future date as per agreement between the parties. Profit: The excess of Revenue Income over expense is called profit. It could be calculated for eachtransaction or for business as a whole.
Loss: The excess of expense over income is called loss. It could be calculated for each transactionor for business as a whole. Asset: Asset is a resource owned by the business with the purpose of using it for generating futureprofits. Assets can be Tangible and Intangible. Tangible Assets are the Capital assets which havesome physical existence. The capital assets whichhave no physical existence and whose value is limited by the rights and anticipated benefits thatpossession confers upon the owner are known as intangible Assets.
Liability: It is an obligation of financial nature to be settled at a future date. It represents amountof money that the business owes to the other parties. It may be in the form of cash, goods,or any other asset which the proprietor or partners of business invest in the business activity.
Frombusiness point of view, capital of owners is a liability which is to be settled only in the event of closureor transfer of the business. Hence, it is not classified as a normal liability. For corporate bodies, capitalis normally represented as share capital. Debtor : The sum total or aggregate of the amounts which the customer owe to the business forpurchasing goods on credit or services rendered or in respect of other contractual obligations, isknown as Sundry Debtors or Trade Debtors, or Trade Payable, or Book-Debts or Debtors.
In otherwords, Debtors are those persons from whom a business has to recover money on account of goodssold or service rendered on credit.
Creditors are generally classified as Current Liabilities. Capital Expenditure : This represents expenditure incurred for the purpose of acquiring a fixed assetwhich is intended to be used over long term for earning profits there from. At times expenditure may be incurred forenhancing the production capacity of the machine.
This also will be a capital expenditure. Capitalexpenditure forms part of the Balance Sheet. Revenue expenditure : This represents expenditure incurred to earn revenue of the current period. The benefits of revenue expenses get exhausted in the year of the incurrence. The revenue expenditure results in reduction in profit orsurplus. It forms part of the Income statement. Business usually prepares 3 reports. A statement of financial position referred to as balance sheet 2.
Income statement 3. Statement of cash flows. In this module, we can just concentrate on the income statement and Balance sheet. Balance Sheet : It is the statement of financial position of the business entity on a particular date. It lists all assets, liabilities and capital. It is important to note that this statement exhibits the state ofaffairs of the business as on a particular date only. It describes what the business owns and whatthe business owes to outsiders this denotes liabilities and to the owners this denotes capital.
Profit and Loss Account or Income Statement : This account shows the revenue earned by thebusiness and the expenses incurred by the business to earn that revenue. This is prepared usuallyfor a particular accounting period, which could be a month, quarter, a half year or a year. The netresult of the Profit and Loss Account will show profit earned or loss suffered by the business entity. A lot of events affect the business, like receiving cash from customers, making payment to suppliers, tax payments, buying and selling on credit etc.
Therefore, to have identical understanding of transactions, Accounting adopts the following four major measurement assumptions: a. Reporting Entity: The primary assumption here is that the Firm is different from its owners and other firms. It has an existence of its own. Owners might come and go. But the organisation exists. Therefore, the financial statement of the firm shall show the financial position of the firm alone and does not include the financial transaction of any other individual or entity.
Reporting entity is also defined by the purpose and the context of financial reporting. For e. A company might have different subsidiary or group companies; Some businesses might want to reports based on segment of business like based on type of products or Geographical segment etc. This assumption is extremely important to understand, as the businesses go through difficult and successful periods of time.
However, they will be able to meet their commitments to the stakeholders in spite of seemingly difficult position. Usually cost commitments, the assets that the firm owns and the ability of the organisation to generate revenue in the foreseeable future will determine if it is a going concern or not. Periodicity: As we assume that the organisations continue to exist under the going concern assumption, the stake holders of the firm may want to find out the results of the operation every now and then.
To satisfy this condition, firms have to report to its stake holders, on their financial performance and financial position based on an artificial time period. This is usually a year. However, the current practices also make it mandatory to report once a quarter. Money measurement: Under this assumption, financial transactions are recorded and Financial statements are always expressed in terms of money for the ease of understanding.
If a transaction or activity cannot be measured in terms of money, such things cannot find a place in the accounting records. However, the type of unit of money i. The important assumption here is that money is a stable measure in the same way as Kg is a stable measure for weight. Employees are residual claimants of the profits of the business, i.
Who among the following would be interested in a company's financial information for the sake of resource allocation, formulation of taxation policies and investigation of corporate crimes? What does the accounting assumption 'reporting entity' mean?
What does the accounting assumption 'historical cost' mean? The concept of double entry system b. The content of a Balance Sheet c. The Accounting equation d. The effect of a transaction on the accounting equation Double Entry System: Double entry is a simple yet powerful concept each and every one of a company's transactions will result in an amount recorded into at least two of the accounts in the accounting system.
Every transaction has two fold aspects, i.
The textbook provides a thorough overview of the accounting system. It delves quite a bit into the "why" of accounting which is sometimes glossed over in favor of mechanics in other texts. Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less. The life examples are drawn from companies which are relevant and understandable to students today. Looking at this from the context of a non-native English speaker, some of the language or vocabulary would be difficult to comprehend. Words such as ancillary even though explained later, might turn off a reader who already struggles with the language.
basic accounting principles, the revenue recognition principle and the matching principle, allow Joe to print out his financial statements with a click of a button.
Accounting — the process of recording, assessing, and communicating financial transactions — helps individuals and organizations understand their financial health. Accountants do this work by keeping track of expenses, profits, and losses, making use of this accounting formula:.
Accounting is one of those concepts and fields that can easily throw you off, especially when it comes to all that terminology used. You can grasp these and many other basic accounting principles with ease. This tutorial is tailored to provide you with all you need to know about accounting. General Ledger and the Chart of Accounts are central to accounting and understanding what it is and how it works is very crucial to proper accounting. For example, you record all property under assets; salaries under expenses, and sales under income. Entries in the chart of accounts are then summarized into a financial report that can be validated by a document called a trial balance.
It seems every industry has its own secret language. And knowing the lingo is an entry-point into the inner circle—an indicator that you truly belong. It's time to roll up those sleeves and start building your accounting vocabulary.
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Велел ему сегодня не приходить. Он ничего не сказал о том, что поменялся с тобой дежурством. У Чатрукьяна ком застрял в горле. Он молчал.
Нет, - хмуро сказал Стратмор.
Кто со мной говорит? - крикнул Стратмор, стараясь перекрыть шум. - Нуматака! - огрызнулся сердитый голос. - Вы обещали мне ключ. Стратмор не остановился.
ГЛАВА 64 Сьюзан осталась одна в тишине и сумерках Третьего узла. Стоявшая перед ней задача была проста: войти в компьютер Хейла, найти ключ и уничтожить все следы его переписки с Танкадо.
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