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- Life and Work of Statisticians
- History of probability
- A Brief Look at the History of Probability and Statistics

*Probability has a dual aspect: on the one hand the likelihood of hypotheses given the evidence for them, and on the other hand the behavior of stochastic processes such as the throwing of dice or coins. The study of the former is historically older in, for example, the law of evidence, while the mathematical treatment of dice began with the work of Cardano , Pascal and Fermat between the 16th and 17th century. Probability is distinguished from statistics ; see history of statistics.*

It begins with a historical overview of the rise of statistics as a study, taking into account the founding of the Statistical Society of London, which became the Royal Statistical Society. It then examines the contributions of Galton, Pearson, and Fisher to the development of modern statistics. It also considers the role played by other figures in the conception of statistics as a branch of applied mathematics in Britain, including Harold Jeffreys. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. Please subscribe or login to access full text content. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

Probability and statistics , the branches of mathematics concerned with the laws governing random events, including the collection, analysis , interpretation, and display of numerical data. Probability has its origin in the study of gambling and insurance in the 17th century, and it is now an indispensable tool of both social and natural sciences. Statistics may be said to have its origin in census counts taken thousands of years ago; as a distinct scientific discipline , however, it was developed in the early 19th century as the study of populations, economies, and moral actions and later in that century as the mathematical tool for analyzing such numbers. For technical information on these subjects, see probability theory and statistics. The modern mathematics of chance is usually dated to a correspondence between the French mathematicians Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal in Suppose two players, A and B , are playing a three-point game, each having wagered 32 pistoles, and are interrupted after A has two points and B has one. How much should each receive?

Indeed, these areas of mathematics are listed as topics for increased attention in the curriculum. Because of this emphasis, all teachers should become more aware of the historical development of these areas of mathematics so we can incorporate historical topics for motivation and extension of the content and so we can show the very human factor in the creation of mathematics. Let us, therefore, trace the development of the areas of probability and statistics. James Lightner professional interests are in geometry and the history of mathematics, as well as mathematics education. James Lightner also serves as executive secretary of the Maryland Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

The work of Pierre Simon, Marquis de Laplace, was more important to the early development of mathematical statistics than that of any other individual. This paper reviews both his major contributions to statistical theory, and his application of this theory to scientific problems. These applications paradoxically reveal both surprising depth and unexpected limitations to his understanding of statistical concepts. Two of Laplace's investigations are examined in detail. The first of these is a solution of a multiple regression problem arising in an astronomical problem he solved in

PDF | It is remarkable that a science (Probability) which began with on probability and statistics during the twentieth century that can be.

*This paper describes the contribution of the four famous Bernoullis Jacob, Johann, Daniel and Nicolaus to the development of the theory of probability between and Their contributions are evaluated from a modern day position of probability theory and statistics. We argue that abstract formulation of problems and mathematical solution concepts for abstract problems and seemingly special questions have a long term impact on the diversification of science.*

Обычно лучистые и ясные, сейчас его глаза казались усталыми, тусклыми. Сколько я уже тут кручусь. Однако считать ему не хотелось. По профессиональной привычке поправив съехавший набок узел галстука, он повернулся к писсуару.

Черт возьми, - подумала Сьюзан. - Почему же так долго. - Ты явно не в себе, - как ни в чем не бывало сказал Хейл. - Какие-нибудь проблемы с диагностикой.

Вопрос национальной безопасности. За дверью послышалось движение, раздались голоса. Он постучал.

*Свет внутри исходил лишь от светящихся компьютерных мониторов Стратмора.*

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## 3 Comments

## Grizel C.

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## Isobel P.

Figures from the History of Probability and Statistics.

## Owen G.

PDF | On Jan 1, , Jordi Vallverdu published History of Probability | Find, read and cite all the of statistics and, with Pierre de Fermat, solved the “balla”.