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List Of Vitamins And Functions Pdf

list of vitamins and functions pdf

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We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. B vitamins are a group of eight essential nutrients that play roles in many organs and bodily systems. Although they can work together in the body, they also carry out their own unique functions.

In this article, we explore the function of B vitamins in the body and some key dietary sources of each. They help the body convert food into energy metabolism , create new blood cells, and maintain healthy skin cells, brain cells, and other body tissues.

B vitamins often occur together in the same foods. Many people can get enough B vitamins by eating a variety of nutrient-dense foods.

People may develop B vitamin deficiencies if they do not get enough of the vitamins from their diet or supplements. They may also have a deficiency if their body cannot absorb nutrients properly, or if their body eliminates too much of them due to certain health conditions or medications. Healthcare professionals recommend that people get a certain amount of each vitamin per day to maintain good health. The heart, liver, kidney, and brain all contain high amounts of thiamin.

The body needs thiamin for:. Thiamin deficiency is not common in the United States. However, certain groups of people may not get enough thiamin, including:. Alcohol dependence can cause a person to develop a thiamin deficiency.

This can cause Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome WKS , which may result in tingling and numbness in the hands and feet, memory loss, and confusion. A review from found that people with WE may benefit from high doses of thiamin. For more in-depth resources about vitamins, minerals, and supplements, visit our dedicated hub.

Riboflavin deficiency is rare but may occur when a person has an endocrine disorder, such as thyroid problems, or certain other conditions.

Having a severe riboflavin deficiency can lead to anemia and cataracts. Being riboflavin deficient during pregnancy can create a higher risk certain birth defects. The body converts niacin into a coenzyme called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD. NAD is a necessary part of more than different enzyme reactions in the body, the highest of all vitamin-derived coenzymes.

These enzymes help with:. Animal-based foods such as meat, poultry, and fish are high in NAD, which the body can easily use. Plant-based foods including nuts, legumes, and grains contain a natural form of niacin that the body cannot use as easily. However, manufacturers add niacin to foods such as cereals, and the body can easily use this form. Getting too little niacin can cause a niacin deficiency. Severe niacin deficiency leads to pellagra, which may cause:. If pellagra goes untreated, it can lead to severe memory problems, behavioral changes, and suicidal behavior.

It may also lead to an extreme loss of appetite or death. Red blood cells carry pantothenic acid throughout the body so it can use the nutrient in a variety of processes for energy and metabolism. Many foods contain at least some pantothenic acid, but some of the highest amounts are present in:.

Pantothenic acid deficiency is rare in the U. However, it may affect people with severe malnutrition. In such cases, they are usually deficient in other nutrients as well. People with a specific gene mutation called pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration 2 mutation are at a high risk of deficiency.

Vitamin B-6, or pyridoxine, plays a role in more than enzyme reactions. The body needs vitamin B-6 for:. Manufacturers add biotin to many hair, skin, and nail supplements. However, the NIH state that there is not sufficient evidence to conclude whether taking extra biotin helps with hair, skin, or nails. Some people believe that biotin may help with psoriasis.

The natural form of vitamin B-9 is called folate. Folic acid , which is present in fortified foods and some supplements, is a synthetic form of the vitamin. Because most people cannot take in enough leafy green vegetables for the levels needed in pregnancy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC suggest that all women of reproductive age who wish to conceive take mcg of folic acid each day, alongside eating a varied diet that contains folate.

When a woman has high enough levels of folate both before and during pregnancy, the fetus has a lower risk of certain birth defects affecting the brain and spinal cord. The FDA require manufacturers to add folic acid to standardized enriched grain products to help reduce the risk of neural tube defects. People can get folic acid from fortified breads and cereals.

The addition of folic acid to grain products has made folate deficiency uncommon. However, the possible symptoms of a folate deficiency may include:. The FDA recommend that women increase the intake of folates and take folic acid supplements every day before becoming pregnant and during pregnancy. Other groups who may need extra folate include people who have:. People should not take more than 1, mcg of folic acid each day.

Taking more than this can mask symptoms of a vitamin B deficiency. This can cause permanent nerve damage. People who do not eat animal products may need to get vitamin B from supplements or fortified foods such as breakfast cereals and nutritional yeast.

Learn more about vegetarian and vegan sources of vitamin B here. Vitamin B deficiency usually causes a condition called megaloblastic anemia. Symptoms of a vitamin B deficiency can include:. People can buy B vitamins as individual supplements if they are deficient in only one type. However, some evidence suggests that a full B-complex vitamin supplement may be a better choice, even if a person has just one deficiency.

The researchers state that most people have deficiencies and would benefit from a high-dose B-complex supplement. Multivitamins and individual vitamin supplements are available to buy in drug stores and online. Choose from a range of B vitamin supplements using the following links:. B vitamins each have their own unique functions, but they depend upon one another for proper absorption and the best health benefits. Eating a healthful, varied diet will generally provide all the B vitamins a person needs.

People can treat and prevent B vitamin deficiencies by increasing their dietary intake of high-vitamin foods or taking vitamin supplements. Thought blocking occurs when someone suddenly stops talking for no clear reason.

There are a number of possible causes. Learn more here. Peanut butter can be a good source of some nutrients, but it does contain certain ingredients that might worsen acne. Learn about the real risk here. A complete guide to B vitamins. Medically reviewed by Alan Carter, Pharm. What are B vitamins? Share on Pinterest Some people may benefit from taking B vitamin supplements.

Daily values. Thiamin vitamin B Riboflavin vitamin B Niacin vitamin B Share on Pinterest Some cereals contain added niacin. Pantothenic acid vitamin B Vitamin B Biotin vitamin B Folate vitamin B Share on Pinterest Avocados and some fortified breads are healthful sources of folate. Vitamin B supplements. Resilience in the age of global crises: How can we cultivate it? Study reveals dietary factors associated with mental health. Related Coverage. Does peanut butter cause acne? Everything to know.

The Fat-Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E and K

A Harvard Health article. Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients because they perform hundreds of roles in the body. There is a fine line between getting enough of these nutrients which is healthy and getting too much which can end up harming you. Eating a healthy diet remains the best way to get sufficient amounts of the vitamins and minerals you need. Every day, your body produces skin, muscle, and bone. It churns out rich red blood that carries nutrients and oxygen to remote outposts, and it sends nerve signals skipping along thousands of miles of brain and body pathways.

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. B vitamins are a group of eight essential nutrients that play roles in many organs and bodily systems. Although they can work together in the body, they also carry out their own unique functions. In this article, we explore the function of B vitamins in the body and some key dietary sources of each. They help the body convert food into energy metabolism , create new blood cells, and maintain healthy skin cells, brain cells, and other body tissues. B vitamins often occur together in the same foods.

list of vitamins and functions pdf

PDF | The aim of this chapter is to summarize key literature findings names of vitamin E include tocopherols or tocotrienols (Gheorghe et al.


A complete guide to B vitamins

Most are water-soluble, meaning they dissolve in water. In contrast, the fat-soluble vitamins are similar to oil and do not dissolve in water. Fat-soluble vitamins are most abundant in high-fat foods and are much better absorbed into your bloodstream when you eat them with fat.

The tables below list the vitamins , what they do in the body their functions , and their sources in food. Water-soluble vitamins travel freely through the body, and excess amounts usually are excreted by the kidneys. The body needs water-soluble vitamins in frequent, small doses.

Listing of vitamins

The tables below list the vitamins , what they do in the body their functions , and their sources in food. Water-soluble vitamins travel freely through the body, and excess amounts usually are excreted by the kidneys. The body needs water-soluble vitamins in frequent, small doses.

Vitamins help your body grow and work the way it should. There are 13 essential vitamins — vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, B 6 , B 12 , and folate. Vitamins have different jobs to help keep the body working properly. Some vitamins help you resist infections and keep your nerves healthy, while others may help your body get energy from food or help your blood clot properly.

The list of vitamins and minerals below can give you an understanding of how particular different types of vitamins and minerals work in your body, how much of each nutrient you need every day , and what types of food to eat to ensure that you are getting an adequate supply. The recommendations in this vitamins chart are based largely on guidelines from the Institute of Medicine. Recommended amounts of different types of vitamins may be expressed in milligrams mg , micrograms mcg , or international units IU , depending on the nutrient. Unless specified, values represent those for adults ages 19 and older. Disclaimer: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content.

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Через три года он ушел из Ай-би-эм, поселился в Нью-Йорке и начал писать программы. Его подхватила новая волна увлечения криптографией. Он писал алгоритмы и зарабатывал неплохие деньги.

Vitamins: Their Functions and Sources

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