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World Development Report 2006 Equity And Development Pdf

world development report 2006 equity and development pdf

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An overview of the most important reports and other publications used for this Dossier on Inequality.

The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgement on the part of The World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Rights and Permissions The material in this publication is copyrighted. For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request with complete information to the Copyright Clearance Center Inc.

Reflections on the “Equity and Development” World Development Report Ten Years Later

In many instances digital technologies have boosted growth, expanded opportunities, and improved service delivery. Yet their aggregate impact has fallen short and is unevenly distributed. For digital technologies to benefit everyone everywhere requires closing the remaining digital divide, especially in internet access. But greater digital adoption will not be enough. Those assumptions typically rest on an idealized model of how people think, rather than an understanding of how everyday thinking actually works.

The Report emphasizes what it calls 'the three marks of everyday thinking. They employ concepts and tools that prior experience in their cultural world has made familiar. And social emotions and social norms motivate much of what they do. These insights together explain the extraordinary persistence of some social practices, and rapid change in others.

They also offer new targets for development policy. A richer understanding of why people save, use preventive health care, work hard, learn, and conserve energy provides a basis for innovative and inexpensive interventions.

The insights reveal that poverty not only deprives people of resources but is an environment that shapes decision making, a fact that development projects across the board need to recognize. The insights show that the psychological foundations of decision making emerge at a young age and require social support. The Report applies insights from modern behavioral and social sciences to development policies for addressing poverty, finance, productivity, health, children, and climate change.

It demonstrates that new policy ideas based on a richer view of decision-making can yield high economic returns. These new policy targets include: the choice architecture for example, the default option ; the scope for social rewards; frames that influence whether or not a norm is activated; information in the form of rules of thumb; opportunities for experiences that change mental models or social norms.

Finally, the Report shows that small changes in context have large effects on behavior. As a result, discovering which interventions are most effective, and with which contexts and populations, inherently requires an experimental approach.

Rigor is needed for testing the processes for delivering interventions, not just the products that are delivered. Across the continents, many countries have embarked on a path of international integration, economic reform, technological modernization, and democratic participation.

Although challenges and inequalities remain, economies that had been stagnant for decades are growing, people whose families had suffered deprivation for generations are escaping poverty, and hundreds of millions are enjoying the benefits of improved living standards and scientific and cultural sharing across nations. As the world changes, a host of opportunities arise constantly. With them, however, appear old and new risks, from the possibility of job loss and disease to the potential for social unrest and environmental damage.

If ignored, these risks can turn into crises that reverse hard-won gains and endanger the social and economic reforms that produced these gains. The solution is not to reject change in order to avoid risk but to prepare for the opportunities and risks that change entails. Managing risks responsibly and effectively has the potential to bring about security and a means of progress for people in developing countries and beyond.

Moving Jobs to the Center Stage Recent world developments have put jobs at the center of the policy debate. The global financial crisis has resulted in massive job losses in both emerging and industrial countries.

Political upheavals in the Arab world highlight the discontent of educated youth whose employment opportunities fall far short of expectations. The political upheavals could boost transparency and accountability in the region, but if jobs do not follow they could lead to greater instability.

These developments create a sense of urgency, but they remind us that jobs are the cornerstone of economic and social development. Most development work is related to jobs, even if we, as development practitioners, do not always articulate it in that way. We approach jobs from different angles: infrastructure development, competition, innovation policies, or skills upgrading.

But we tend to do so in silos. The lives of girls and women have changed dramatically over the past quarter century. The pace of change has been astonishing in some areas, but in others, progress toward gender equality has been limited—even in developed countries.

This year's World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development argues that gender equality is a core development objective in its own right. It is also smart economics. Greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative. The Report also focuses on four priority areas for policy going forward: i reducing excess female mortality and closing education gaps where they remain, ii improving access to economic opportunities for women iii increasing women's voice and agency in the household and in society and iv limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations.

With more than 1. Interstate and civil wars characterized violent conflict in the last century; more pronounced today is violence linked to local disputes, political repression, and organized crime. The risk of major violence is greatest when high levels of stress combine with weak and illegitimate national institutions.

Societies are vulnerable when their institutions are unable to protect citizens from abuse, or to provide equitable access to justice and to economic opportunity. These vulnerabilities are exacerbated in countries with high youth unemployment, growing income inequality, and perceptible injustice.

Externally driven events such as infiltration by foreign combatants, the presence of trafficking networks, or economic shocks add to the stresses that can provoke violence. The WDR draws on the experiences of countries that have successfully managed to transition away from repetitive violence, pointing to a specific need to prioritize actions that build confidence between states and citizens, and develop institutions that can provide security, justice, and jobs.

Government capacity is central, but technical competence alone is insufficient: institutions and programs must be accountable to their citizens if they are to acquire legitimacy. Impunity, corruption, and human rights abuses undermine confidence between states and citizens and increase the risks of violence.

Building resilient institutions occurs in multiple transitions over a generation, and does not mean converging on Western institutional models. The WDR draws together lessons from national reformers escaping from repetitive cycles of violence. It advocates a greater focus on continuous preventive action, balancing a sometimes excessive concentration on postconflict reconstruction. The Report is based on new research, case studies, and extensive consultations with leaders and other actors throughout the world.

Thirty years ago, half the developing world lived in extreme poverty—today, a quarter. Now, a much smaller share of children are malnourished and at risk of early death. And access to modern infrastructure is much more widespread. Yet the needs remain enormous, with the number of hungry people having passed the billion mark this year for the first time in history.

With so many still in poverty and hunger, growth and poverty alleviation remain the overarching priority for developing countries. Climate change only makes the challenge more complicated. First, the impacts of a changing climate are already being felt, with more droughts, more floods, more strong storms, and more heat waves—taxing individuals, firms, and governments, drawing resources away from development. Second, continuing climate change, at current rates, will pose increasingly severe challenges to development.

Work is constantly reshaped by technological progress. New ways of production are adopted, markets expand, and societies evolve. But some changes provoke more attention than others, in part due to the vast uncertainty involved in making predictions about the future.

The World Development Report will study how the World Bank. Every year, the World Bank's World Development Report takes on a topic of central importance to global development. The Report, Learning to Realize Education's Promise, is the first ever devoted entirely to education. Now is an excellent time for it: education has long been critical for human welfare, but is even The political economy of development. This academic site promotes excellence in teaching and researching economics and development , and the advancing of describing, understanding, explaining and theorizing for planning for development.

World Development Report Background Papers. World Development Report Mind, Society and Behaviour "Every policy relies on explicit or implicit assumptions about how people make choices. World Development Report Risk and opportunity. World Development Report Gender Equality and Development The lives of girls and women have changed dramatically over the past quarter century. As economies grow from low to high income, production becomes more concentrated spatially. Some places—cities, coastal areas, and connected countries—are favored by producers.

As countries develop, the most successful ones also institute policies that make living standards of people more uniform across space. The way to get both the immediate benefi ts of the concentration of production and the long-term benefi ts of a convergence in living standards is economic integration. Although the problems of economic integration defy simple solutions, the guiding principle does not have to be complex. The policy mix should be calibrated to match the diffi culty of the development challenge, determined by the economic geography of places.

Today, policy discussions about geographic disparities in development often start and end with a consideration of spatially targeted interventions. The Report reframes these debates to include all instruments for economic integration—institutions, infrastructure, and incentives.

The bedrock of integration efforts should be spatially blind institutions. As the challenges posed by geography become more diffi cult, the response should include connective infrastructure. In places where integration is hardest, the policy response should be commensurately comprehensive: institutions that unite, infrastructure that connects, and interventions that target.

In Sub-Saharan Africa, a region heavily reliant on agriculture for overall growth, public spending for farming is also only 4 percent of total government spending and the sector is still taxed at relatively high levels. However, failure to seize this opportunity to train them more effectively for the workplace, and to be active citizens, could lead to widespread disillusionment and social tensions. Selected World Development Indicators. Public Disclosure Authorized Address to the U. Economic and Social Council by Mr.

Robert S. Our common enterprise is to drive back poverty, to lift living standards and to enhance the dignity of man. Only slow progress is being made toward enabling the less developed countries of the world to earn more in world trade.

The availability of international finance for development programs still lags behind the growing ability of the poor countries of the world to put capital to good use. A, Japan, E.

World development report 2006 : equity and development

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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Ozler and Tamar Manuelyan Atinc and A. Banerjee and Francisco Ferreira and V.


That is why the World Development Report , the twenty-eighth in this annual series, looks at the role of equity in the process of development. Equity is.


Equity and Development

World Development Report 2006: Equity and Development (September 2005)

Type of work: Report.

Reflections on the “Equity and Development” World Development Report Ten Years Later

Is there a relationship between equity and development? This report, published by the World Bank, recognises both the intrinsic value of equity and its instrumental role in reducing poverty. Greater equity contributes to poverty reduction through potential beneficial effects on aggregate long-term development and through enhanced opportunities for poorer groups within society. Government institutions should ensure equal opportunities for all individuals by promoting a level playing field both politically and economically in the domestic and global arena. The concept of equity demands that individuals should have equal opportunities to pursue a life of their choosing and be spared from extreme deprivation.

World Development Report : Equity and Development. World Bank. The World Development Report Equity and Opportunitypresents a social development strategy organized around the themes of social inclusion, cohesion, and accountability. It examines equality of opportunities--a potentially important factor affecting both the workings of the investment environment and the empowerment of the poor--by building on and extending existing accountability frameworks presented in the Report. TheReportis divided into three parts. Part I describes patterns of inequality in a range of variables both at the national and global level-incomes, educational achievements, health indicators, power, and influence.

Inequality and Growth: Patterns and Policy pp Cite as. Its goal was to challenge the dominant view, in the World Bank and elsewhere in the development community, that, in their aim to reduce and possibly eradicate poverty, development strategies should focus mostly on aggregate growth. The main idea to be developed in the report was that the whole distribution of income within the population, rather than only its mean, mattered and should be a major concern for policy makers. Namely, the degree of inequality of the income distribution affected poverty reduction in two ways. Not only was it reducing the share of the gain from growth actually accruing to the poorest, but it was also slowing down growth itself.


With member countries, staff from more than countries, and offices in over locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five.


Account Options

In many instances digital technologies have boosted growth, expanded opportunities, and improved service delivery. Yet their aggregate impact has fallen short and is unevenly distributed. For digital technologies to benefit everyone everywhere requires closing the remaining digital divide, especially in internet access. But greater digital adoption will not be enough. Those assumptions typically rest on an idealized model of how people think, rather than an understanding of how everyday thinking actually works. The Report emphasizes what it calls 'the three marks of everyday thinking.

Each WDR provides in-depth analysis of a specific aspect of economic development. Past reports have considered such topics as agriculture, youth, equity, public services delivery, the role of the state, transition economies , labour, infrastructure, health , the environment, risk management, and poverty. The reports are the Bank's best-known contribution to thinking about development.

Equity and Development

It tends to favor sustained overall development, and it delivers increased opportunities to the poorest groups in a society. Summary: World Development Report analyzes the relationship between equity and development. The report documents the persistence of inequality traps by highlighting the interaction between different forms of inequality. It presents evidence that the inequality of opportunity that arises is wasteful and inimical to sustainable development and poverty reduction. It also derives policy implications that center on the broad concept of leveling the playing field-both politically and economically and in the domestic and the global arenas.

Стекла очков блеснули, и его пальцы снова задвигались в воздухе. Он, как обычно, записал имена жертв.

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