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Brain Glucose Sensing And Neural Regulation Of Insulin And Glucagon Secretion Pdf

brain glucose sensing and neural regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion pdf

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Published: 22.04.2021

Ever since Claude Bernards discovery in the mid 19th-century that a lesion in the floor of the third ventricle in dogs led to altered systemic glucose levels, a role of the CNS in whole-body glucose regulation has been acknowledged. However, this finding was later overshadowed by the isolation of pancreatic hormones in the 20th century. Since then, the understanding of glucose homeostasis and pathology has primarily evolved around peripheral mechanism.

Brain glucose sensing, glucokinase and neural control of metabolism and islet function

It is increasingly apparent that the brain plays a central role in metabolic homeostasis, including the maintenance of blood glucose. This is achieved by various efferent pathways from the brain to periphery, which help control hepatic glucose flux and perhaps insulin-stimulated insulin secretion. To exert these control functions, the brain needs to detect rapidly and accurately changes in blood glucose. In this review, we summarize some of the mechanisms postulated to play a role in this and examine the potential role of the low-affinity hexokinase, glucokinase, in the brain as a key part of some of this sensing. We also discuss how these processes may become altered in diabetes and related metabolic diseases.

Glucagon is a potent counterregulatory hormone that opposes the action of insulin in controlling glycemia. In this study, we examined hypoglycemia-induced glucagon secretion in vitro in isolated islets and in vivo using Sur1KO mice lacking neuroendocrine-type K ATP channels and paired wild-type WT controls. Sur1KO mice fed ad libitum have normal glucagon levels and mobilize hepatic glycogen in response to exogenous glucagon but exhibit a blunted glucagon response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. WT islets increase glucagon secretion approximately fold when challenged with 0. Glibenclamide stimulated insulin secretion and reduced glucagon release in WT islets but was without effect on secretion from Sur1KO islets.

The effects of stimulation of the mixed autonomic nerve to the dog pancreas has been studied under conditions in which both pancreaticoduodenal vein blood flow and insulin concentration were determined. Stimulation resulted in increased insulin output, which was blocked by prior administration of atropine. Blood flow was reduced by stimulation in proportion to the rate of stimulation. Atropinization had no effect on blood flow changes. Insulin responses to 0. These studies establish this preparation as a reproducible model for the direct examination of autonomic influences on endocrine pancreatic function.

Brain glucose sensing and neural regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion

Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Diabetes , 12 Apr , 65 9 : DOI: The brain influences glucose homeostasis, partly by supplemental control over insulin and glucagon secretion. Without this central regulation, diabetes and its complications can ensue. Yet, the neuronal network linking to pancreatic islets has never been fully mapped.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Thorens Published Medicine Diabetes. Glucose homeostasis requires the tight regulation of glucose utilization by liver, muscle and white or brown fat, and glucose production and release in the blood by liver.

CNS control of the endocrine pancreas

Metrics details. Diabetes is a disease caused by a breakdown in the glucose metabolic process resulting in abnormal blood glucose fluctuations. Traditionally, control has involved external insulin injection in response to elevated blood glucose to substitute the role of the beta cells in the pancreas which would otherwise perform this function in a healthy individual. The central nervous system CNS , however, also plays a vital role in glucose homoeostasis through the control of pancreatic secretion and insulin sensitivity which could potentially be used as a pathway for enhancing glucose control. In this review, we present an overview of the brain regions, peripheral nerves and molecular mechanisms by which the CNS regulates glucose metabolism and the potential benefits of modulating them for diabetes management.

Insulin and glucagon have opposite effects on glycaemia as well as on the metabolism of nutrients.

Brain glucose sensing, glucokinase and neural control of metabolism and islet function

Glucagon is a potent counterregulatory hormone that opposes the action of insulin in controlling glycemia. In this study, we examined hypoglycemia-induced glucagon secretion in vitro in isolated islets and in vivo using Sur1KO mice lacking neuroendocrine-type K ATP channels and paired wild-type WT controls. Sur1KO mice fed ad libitum have normal glucagon levels and mobilize hepatic glycogen in response to exogenous glucagon but exhibit a blunted glucagon response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. WT islets increase glucagon secretion approximately fold when challenged with 0.

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У меня чутье. У нее чутье. Ну вот, на Мидж снова что-то нашло. - Если Стратмор не забил тревогу, то зачем тревожиться. - Да в шифровалке темно как в аду, черт тебя дери.

Background

У дальней стены дрожали включенные на полную мощность динамики, и даже самые неистовые танцоры не могли подойти к ним ближе чем на десять метров. Беккер заткнул уши и оглядел толпу. Куда бы ни падал его взгляд, всюду мелькали красно-бело-синие прически. Тела танцующих слились так плотно, что он не мог рассмотреть, во что они одеты. Британского флага нигде не было .

Заплачу кучу денег. Хотя спектакль и показался достаточно убедительным, но Беккер зашел слишком. Проституция в Испании запрещена, а сеньор Ролдан был человеком осторожным. Он уже не один раз обжигался, когда полицейские чиновники выдавали себя за похотливых туристов. Я хотел бы с ней покувыркаться. Ролдан сразу решил, что это подстава. Если он скажет да, его подвергнут большому штрафу, да к тому же заставят предоставить одну из лучших сопровождающих полицейскому комиссару на весь уик-энд за здорово живешь.

 Червь, - недовольно сказал Джабба.  - Никакой усложненной структуры, один лишь инстинкт: жри, опорожняйся и ползи. Вот что это. Простота. Губительная простота. Он делает то, на что запрограммирован, а потом исчезает. Фонтейн сурово смотрел на Джаббу: - И на что же запрограммирован этот червяк.

Обычно же открытый текст поступал на принтер Стратмора за считанные минуты. Она взглянула на скоростное печатное устройство позади письменного стола шефа. В нем ничего не .

Эти слова, похоже, озадачили панка. - Меня зовут Дэвид Беккер.  - Беккер улыбнулся и над столом протянул парню руку.

 - Почему они такие красные. Она расхохоталась. - Я же сказала вам, что ревела навзрыд, опоздав на самолет.

Ты сам отлично знаешь, что происходит. - А ну-ка пропусти меня, Грег, - сказала.  - Мне нужно в туалет. Хейл ухмыльнулся, но, подождав еще минуту, отошел в сторону. - Извини, Сью, я пошутил.

CNS control of the endocrine pancreas

Левый угол пуст.

2 Comments

  1. Parnella V.

    22.04.2021 at 15:26
    Reply

    Increasing evidence suggests that, although pancreatic islets can function autonomously to detect and respond to changes in the circulating glucose level, the brain cooperates with the islet to maintain glycaemic control.

  2. Brice T.

    23.04.2021 at 14:58
    Reply

    Both branches of the autonomic nervous system stimulate glucagon secretion whereas the parasympathetic branch stimulates and the.

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