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Shri Ramakrishna Paramahansa was born on 18 February, in the small village Kamarpukur, some miles away from Kolkata in a poor Brahmin family.
Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Ramakrishna and Vivekananda: Two Teachings or One? Arpita Mitra. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Certain aspects of this tradition have come under close and increasingly critical scrutiny by academic scholars. This essay examines one of the major points of scholarly criticism: the pervasive claim that Swami Vivekananda's teachings marked a distinctive break from those of his master, Sri Ramakrishna.
It is claimed that Sri Ramakrishna is more tantric than Advaitin and that his teachings could be understood, 'more adequately in the categories of tantric thought and practice than in the concepts of Shankara's advaita';1 that he was a vijnani-an individual with special knowledge of the Absolute, in which the universe is affirmed and seen as the manifestation of Brahman-which is quite distinct from the Advaita Vedanta of Acharya Shankara; was primarily a bhakta and did not emphasize the path of jnana or karma, while Swami Vivekananda's focus had been on the latter; or that although his teachings had a basis in Advaita, 'he rarely prescribed this to his followers.
Furthermore, some studies claim Swami Vivekananda, and the institutionalization of the movement that took place under his influence, projected the image of an Advaitin onto Sri Ramakrishna. However, one scholar, Gwilym Beckerlegge, has pointed out it is difficult to accept that: 'Vivekananda accomplished his task with either the connivance of, or a lack of effective opposition from, disciples who had been every bit as close to Ramakrishna, and who could claim to speak with authority on the basis of this intimacy.
They may agree on some points and disagree on others. Even in two seemingly similar opinions there is usually a shade of difference. To give an illustration, Amiya P Sen concedes Vivekananda's ideal of service is not helping others but helping oneself and this 'moral monism' is derived from his guru. Sen writes: 'Whereas the social implication of Vedantic non-dualism would indicate a strong sense of altruism and the ability to rise above rigid social classifications, none of these significantly, were pronounced in Ramakrishna.
It has also been pointed out that Swamiji claimed karma yoga to be an independent path to liberation, without necessarily grounding itself in a belief in God, and that this is an essential difference between the guru and his foremost disciple.
In trying to locate the source of Swamiji's ideal of service, scholars have gone far and wide and tried to situate it in various factors. Arguments trace the roots of this ideal in general terms to: Vivekananda's direct exposure to Western society; various experiences and influencesboth spiritual and social-during his parivrajya, previous page: 'swaMiji in MeDitation at belgauM', by suDhir -Digital print monastic wandering, in India; the social reality of abject poverty coupled with the immediate context of colonial critique and European orientalism; and in more specific terms, to a possible influence of the Swami narayan movement of Western India.
In brief, scholars mostly locate the source of Swamiji's ideal of service everywhere else, except in Sri Ramakrishna! Not all of these claims are entirely wrong. There was a lot that went into the making of the swami, but no matter how big a circumference was drawn by his life and experiences, the centre point was laid down by Sri Ramakrishna. By examining the teachings of both Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda, this article will demonstrate Swamiji's main influence was his guru, Sri Ramakrishna.
Regarding these claims, Holy Mother Sri Sarada Devi resolved potential controversy once and for all in two powerful strokes.
The first instance was when someone expressed doubts about Swamiji's injunction that prohibited image worship at the Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati, she exhorted him to always remember that the Master was undoubtedly Advaita. In another situation that took place in the hospital of the Kashi Seva shrama, she claimed she saw the Master abiding in the Sevashrama and that the boys were worshipping him wholeheartedly by serving the patients.
Holy Mother had also maintained resolutely that sannyasins should engage in karma related to service, for whose work it is if not the Lord's? The first is through an examination of the actual, empirical history of the development of the tradition and its institutions. The second is through an analysis of the principal teachings of the Master and the disciple.
While there have been elaborate studies of the first, a close and rigorous comparison of the teachings of the Master and his foremost disciple has been rarely undertaken. Even while scholars have tried to relate the two sets of teachings, they have either concentrated on a close examination of Sri Ramakrishna's teachings alone with only broad 'parivrajaka', by runu Misra banerjee -watercolour wash references to Swamiji or drawn broad conclusions on the teachings of both without closely comparing the two.
This article concentrates on analysing the teachings of Sri Ramakrishna and Swami Vivekananda as it is the most direct method of approaching the issue. Without going into the existing debate on the reliability of the sources for this tradition, this essay relies on two conventional sources: i the Sri Sri Ramakrishna Kathamrita by M, translated into English as The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna; and ii The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda.
This choice is guided by the understanding that the content of these basic sources has been only partly understood, misunderstood outside their context and the larger picture of teachings, or even misrepresented by some scholars. By relying on these sources it is possible to get a different picture compared to what has been understood by scholars so far.
You have no doubt heard the story of the chameleon. A man entered a wood and saw a chameleon on a tree. He reported to his friends, 'I have seen a red lizard. Another person, after visiting the tree, said, 'I have seen a green lizard. But the man who lived under the tree said: 'What both of you have said is true. But the fact is that the creature is sometimes red, sometimes green, sometimes yellow, and sometimes has no colour at all.
Such was its wonderful property that people could dye their clothes any colour they wanted by merely dipping them in it. A clever man said to the owner of the tub, "Dye my cloth the colour of your dye-stuff "' Sri Ramakrishna even summarized the issue by stating: 'Everyone speaks of me according to his comprehension' There are numerous conversations that record this difference and attest the truth claim of all these apparently dissimilar positions.
For example, he states: But, my dear sir, I am in a peculiar state of mind. My mind constantly descends from the Absolute to the Relative, and again ascends from the Relative to the Absolute. There is a state of consciousness where the many disappears, and the One, as well; for the many must exist as long as the One exists. Brahman is without comparison. Again, sometimes he shows me that He has created the universe and all living beings. He is the Master, and the universe His garden Sri Ramakrishna also said: 'No one else is here, and you are my own people.
Let me tell you something. The allusion to the three different mental states of Hanuman appears repeatedly in the Kathamrita. In these utterances Sri Ramakrishna articulated three distinct bhavas, mental attitudes, all of which are equally true depending on the state of one's mind.
The validity of any one does not nullify the validity of another. Despite their apparent contradictoriness they are not a forced and unsystematic synthesis of different things.
They are the articulation of spiritual realizations vividly experienced by Indian mystics. Swamiji also articulated the same point as his guru:When Prahlada forgot himself, he found neither the universe nor its cause; all was to him one Infinite, undifferentiated by name and form; but as soon as he remembered that he was Prahlada, there was the universe before him and with it the Lord of the universe … So it was with the blessed Gopis.
So long as they had lost sense of their own personal identity and individuality, they were all Krishnas, and when they began again to think of Him as the One to be worshipped, then they were Gopis again, and immediately-'Unto them appeared Krishna with a smile on His lotus face, clad in yellow robes and having garlands on, the embodied conqueror in beauty of the god of love. To the masses who could not conceive of anything higher than a Personal God, he said, 'Pray to your Father in heaven.
Jnana and VijnanaDespite appearing contradictory, the thread running through the Kathamrita is that Reality is singular. Brahman and Shakti are inseparably one much like 'water and its wetness' , and 'fire and its power to burn' are inseparably one. Now, let us examine closely an excerpt from a lecture in Jnana Yoga delivered by Swami Vivekananda at London in , ten years after the passing away of the Master:Here I can only lay before you what the Vedanta seeks to teach, and that is the deification of the world.
The Vedanta does not in reality denounce the world. The ideal of renunciation nowhere attains such a height as in the teachings of the Vedanta. But, at the same time, dry suicidal advice is not intended; it really means deification of the world-giving up the world as we think of it, as we know it, as it appears to us-and to know what it really is. Deify it; it is God alone. We read at the commencement of one of the oldest of the Upanishads, 'Whatever exists in this universe is to be covered with the Lord.
Thus we have to give up the world, and when the world is given up, what remains? What is meant? You can have your wife; it does not mean that you are to abandon her, but that you are to see God in the wife.
Give up your children; what does that mean? To turn them out of doors, as some human brutes do in every country? Certainly not. That is diabolism; it is not religion. But see God in your children. So, in everything. In life and in death, in happiness and in misery, the Lord is equally present. The whole world is full of the Lord. Open your eyes and see Him. We have to give up ignorance and all that is false, and then truth will begin to reveal itself to us. When we have grasped the truth, things which we gave up at first will take new shape and form, will appear to us in a new light, and become deified.
They will have become sublimated, and then we shall understand them in their true light. But to understand them, we have first to get a glimpse of truth; we must give them up at first, and then we get them back again, deified. The process of affirmation is the realization after reaching the terrace that the terrace and the stairs are made of the same stuff.
To think of the terrace and stairs as made of different material is ignorance, to know them as made of the same stuff is knowledge: 'To know many things [as many] is ajnana, ignorance. To know only one thing [as One] is jnana, Knowledge-the realization that God alone is real and that He dwells in all. And to talk to Him is vijnana, a fuller Knowledge. To love God in different ways, after realizing Him, is vijnana.
Since God is everywhere, he is both 'inside and outside man' ; inside he resides as 'our Inner Guide' 80 , and outside he pervades his own creation Doesn't He exist when I look around with my eyes open? And Swamiji taught: 'The whole world is full of the Lord. Then one clearly realizes that God Himself has become the universe and all living beings, that He is not outside the world.
Sri Ramakrishna's definition of a vijnani was one who could easily commute between the 'Nitya, the Absolute' and 'Lila, the Relative' Freda Matchett points out that the words Brahman and Shakti rarely appear in the public teachings of Swamiji.
This is a biography of one of Indias greatest saints, written for the West by one of Englands greatest authors. The bedroom of George Fox at Swarthmoor Hall, including his travel bed societies, and found the equality of Quaker women exhilarating. Ramakrishna and His Disciples. This tree has so many negative characteristics, its success is truly a testament to the nursery industry s And think about it: Does your home landscape really need a hedge the height of. An effective resistance movement developed by the end of the war, and most. This was a project with the University of Reading and Folio Society.
SRI RAMAKRISHNA. AND HIS DISCIPLES. BY SISTER DEVAMATA. Author of “Days in an Indian Monastery,” “Building of. Character," "What is Death,” etc.
This book is dedicated - indeed, one may say it dedicates itself - to Swami Prab havananda, head of the Vedanta Society of Southern California, my guru, dear fri end and literary collaborator for the past twenty-five years. It was he who aske d me to write it, and who has helped me with his advice and encouragement throug hout the writing. I owe great gratitude to Swami Madhavananda, head of the Ramakrishna Order, who read the manuscript chapter by chapter as it was sent to him at the Belur Math i n Bengal, and supplied me with most valuable corrections, added information and comments. While in India recently, he verified many details, collected illustration s for this book and compiled the explanatory notes on them which are printed in an appendix. Here, at our centre in Los Angeles, I must also thank Swami Vanda- nananda, Ursu la Bond Pravrajika Anandaprana and the many other members of the group who hav e shared in the work of this project.
This classic work of research published by Advaita Ashrama, a Publication centre of Ramakrishna Math, Belur Math, India, brings under a single volume around persons inspired by the ideals of Sri Ramakrishna and his disciples. For the scholars it is a mine of information presented precisely, and for the devotees of Ramakrishna, it is an inspiring account of western admiration for Ramakrishna and his disciples. Pdf version. The author, Gopal Stavig, Ph. Western Admirers of Ramakrishna and His Disciples. Gopal Stavig.
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Преодолев отвращение, Беккер открыл дверь. Регистратура. Бедлам. Так он и. Очередь из десяти человек, толкотня и крик. Испания не славится эффективностью бюрократического аппарата, и Беккер понял, что ему придется простоять здесь всю ночь, чтобы получить информацию о канадце. За конторкой сидела только одна секретарша, норовившая избавиться от назойливых пациентов.
А Смит тем временем безучастно продолжал свои комментарии: - Как вы видите, у Танкадо случился мгновенный сердечный приступ. Сьюзан стало дурно оттого, что она увидела. Танкадо прижал изуродованную руку к груди с выражением недоумения и ужаса на лице. - Вы можете заметить, - продолжал Смит, - что взгляд его устремлен. Он ни разу не посмотрел по сторонам.
Сьюзан Флетчер оказалась в полной темноте.
АНБ, - подумал. - НБ - это, конечно, не болтай. Вот такое агентство. На другой стороне авениды Изабеллы он сразу же увидел клинику с изображенным на крыше обычным красным крестом на белом поле. С того момента как полицейский доставил сюда канадца, прошло уже несколько часов.
Но сейчас, глядя на толпу завсегдатаев, пытающихся попасть в клуб, Беккер не был уверен, что сможет отказаться от дальнейших поисков. Он смотрел на огромную толпу панков, какую ему еще никогда не доводилось видеть. Повсюду мелькали красно-бело-синие прически.
Тот, который тебе передал Танкадо. - Понятия не имею, о чем. - Лжец! - выкрикнула Сьюзан. - Я видела твою электронную почту.
Между деревьев в левой части кадра что-то сверкнуло, и в то же мгновение Танкадо схватился за грудь и потерял равновесие. Камера, подрагивая, словно наехала на него, и кадр не сразу оказался в фокусе.
Он искал глазами Сьюзан Флетчер, но она уже стояла прямо перед экраном, на котором крупным планом было видно лицо Дэвида Беккера. - Дэвид. - Привет, красавица. - Он улыбнулся.
Цезарь, объясняла она, был первым в истории человеком, использовавшим шифр. Когда его посыльные стали попадать в руки врага имеете с его секретными посланиями, он придумал примитивный способ шифровки своих указаний. Он преобразовывал послания таким образом, чтобы текст выглядел бессмыслицей.
Соблазнительный образ Кармен тут же улетучился. Код ценой в один миллиард долларов. Некоторое время он сидел словно парализованный, затем в панике выбежал в коридор. - Мидж. Скорее .
Клушар увидел яркую вспышку света… и черную бездну. Человек ослабил нажим, еще раз взглянул на прикрепленную к спинке кровати табличку с именем больного и беззвучно выскользнул из палаты. Оказавшись на улице, человек в очках в тонкой металлической оправе достал крошечный прибор, закрепленный на брючном ремне, - квадратную коробочку размером с кредитную карту.
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