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What Is Project Monitoring And Evaluation Pdf

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Subscribe to our newsletter. Great news is, the variations of monitoring and evaluation are not mutually exclusive, which means that they can be used in different combinations to leverage the full potential of your project. It is often conducted in conjunction with compliance monitoring and feeds into the evaluation of impact.

How to Develop a Monitoring and Evaluation Plan

Metrics details. Sharing this information with key stakeholders prompted them to take appropriate actions. For example, the sub-county leadership constructed placenta disposal pits, the district health officer provided fuel for ambulances, and health workers received refresher training and mentorship on how to care for newborns.

Diverse sources of information and perspectives can help researchers and decision-makers understand and adapt evidence to contexts for more effective interventions. Supporting districts to have crosscutting, routine information generating and sharing platforms that bring together stakeholders from different sectors is therefore crucial for the successful implementation of complex development interventions.

The ever increasing demand for scarce resources has drawn more attention to the need to not only evaluate health programmes, but to also ensure that the results of these evaluations influence the implementation of programmes. The availability of accurate, timely and consistent data at the national and sub-national levels is assumed to be crucial for development programmes to effectively manage health systems, allocate resources according to need, and ensure accountability for delivering on health commitments [ 1 , 2 , 3 ].

Timely evidence from research during the course of implementation can inform and influence policy development, the identification of good practices and the development of sustainable health systems [ 4 , 5 , 6 ].

In contexts where maternal and newborn mortality is high, both demand and supply-side challenges exist side-by-side [ 2 ].

For instance, providing appropriate maternity care is a complex process that involves a wide range of preventive, curative and emergency services as well as several different levels of care — from the community to the facility and beyond [ 2 , 7 ].

At the household level, there is a need to recognise maternal and newborn danger signs by family members so that appropriate services can be sought [ 8 , 9 ]. At community level, accessibility to information on maternal and newborn service, proximity to the health facility and access to transport contribute to the increased utilisation of services from skilled personnel.

At the facility level, equipment, supplies and medicines must be available to enable the health provider to make the correct diagnosis, provide appropriate treatment and make timely decisions so as to save the life of the mother and her newborn [ 7 , 8 ].

Weaver and Cousins [ 11 ] categorise participatory evaluation into practical participatory evaluation, which is more utilisation oriented and mainly focused on local problem solving, and transformative participatory evaluation, which is more emancipatory in nature with a strong empowerment component aimed at addressing existing inequities.

It also enhances their use of the evaluation findings through their participation in the implementation learning and assessment process [ 15 ]. In addition, the involvement of different stakeholders helps to uncover diverse views, which guides debate and better understanding of the issues that affect the communities [ 11 , 15 ].

As a result, this can inform the redesigning and improvement of programmes that do not reach their intended beneficiaries [ 16 , 17 ]. Several authors have proposed theories that explain the mechanisms that underpin the activities and consequences of practical participatory evaluations. Smits and Champagne [ 18 ] emphasise the importance of four key concepts, namely interactive data generation, co-construction of knowledge, local context of action and instrumental use.

This interactive process eventually influences evaluation knowledge production and evaluation utilisation. They included 1 community mobilisation and empowerment through the community health worker home visits, community dialogue meetings, radio talk shows and messages; 2 improvement of financial and geographical access to care by promoting savings for delivery care and organising local transport; and 3 health systems strengthening through training of health workers, mentorship, supportive supervision and capacity-building of leaders in management.

These interventions were provided only in the intervention area except for the radio talk shows and messages, which were aired on radios with listenership in the control areas as well and support supervision, which was routinely provided by the district health team in both the control and intervention area.

The research team comprised of members from the district level district health officers, and district reproductive health focal persons and researchers from the Makerere University School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health. The Makerere University team was also responsible for building the capacity of the local implementers by providing technical support to the district and sub-county teams, who were the lead implementers.

The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health team provided general oversight for implementation of the project together with the Makerere University team.

The sub-county and district level stakeholders comprised of the health workers, various community leaders and decision-makers religious leaders, political leaders and technocrats. The community level stakeholders included men and women of reproductive age, VHT members, savings group leaders and local transporters. The men and women of the community were important stakeholders, since they made decisions about seeking appropriate care for mothers and newborns and preparing for birth by ensuring that they had the financial resources required in addition to planning transport and purchasing other requirements needed for the mother and newborn.

The VHT members were responsible for doing home visits and conducting community dialogues, which were community meetings established to discuss MNH issues. Saving group leaders and transporters provided relevant services that contributed to increasing access to cash and transport for MNH. The local transporters were chosen by the savings group and they were responsible for providing safe transport services to health facilities during antenatal care ANC and at the time of delivery.

Prior to the implementation of the project, refresher trainings and orientation meetings were provided for all the local implementers in the project. This was done to enhance their capacity to play their expected roles, as explained above. Continuous technical support was also provided throughout the implementation of the project by the Makerere University team and respective local supervisors. Further details about the trainings performed are available in Ekirapa-Kiracho et al.

During study implementation, the research findings were analysed, synthesised and shared on a quarterly basis with the different stakeholders in the intervention area.

Whereas numerous papers have been written about outcomes of evaluation studies, much less attention has been paid to the evaluation processes themselves [ 21 ]. The estimated population of the three districts was 1,, Kamuli ,, Kibuku , and Pallisa , [ 22 ].

The three districts have health facilities, 33 in Pallisa, 17 in Kibuku and 54 in Kamuli [ 22 ]. The MANIFEST baseline study estimated the neonatal mortality rate to be 34 per live births [ 25 ], compared to the 27 per live births national estimates [ 23 , 24 ].

The data for this paper is drawn from retrospective reflection of the various data collection sources that included document reviews, project implementation review meetings, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, health facility support supervisions and household surveys. Details of how the implementation study data was collected are available in a study design paper [ 20 ]. Our motivation for using the participatory approaches was mainly pragmatic and political [ 11 ].

The pragmatic approach was aimed at promoting problem solving. We therefore encouraged the involvement and participation of local stakeholders in assessing progress with implementation, identifying key lessons and challenges, and subsequently suggesting suitable solutions to the challenges identified. In relation to the political aspects, our aim was to make sure that we gather the support of the community leaders politicians , the implementing team health workers, community development officers, implementing partners and community health workers and the community, including marginalised populations such as adolescents and disabled persons.

The project provided avenues for these stakeholders to be able to critically understand the health challenges at both health facility, community and individual level through providing evidence and allowing interaction, which in turn motivated them to take an active role in providing solutions to the problems identified.

We collected data during the design stage at the beginning, during implementation and at the end of the intervention, and consistently involved stakeholders at national, district, sub-county and community village level during data collection and dissemination.

This approach collected data through formal meetings. These planning meetings were facilitated by the Makerere University School of Public Health research team. During the planning meeting, the stakeholders were asked to discuss how to address the problems identified using available resources and a given time frame.

The involvement of the stakeholders at the planning stage provided a better understanding of the maternal and newborn problems and guided the selection of interventions that were implemented. During the implementation phase, the stakeholders at the community and sub-county levels in the intervention areas were engaged in addition to the district level stakeholders.

They were engaged through quarterly group meetings, which took place at sub-county and district level, quarterly support supervision visits to the health facilities, and quarterly group meetings with the VHTs and the communities community dialogues. At district level, the meetings were chaired by the district health officer, who was responsible for mobilising all district stakeholders, including the implementing partners and donors such as UNICEF and USAID.

At sub-county level, the meetings were chaired by the sub-county chief, who was also responsible for mobilising the sub-county implementation committee for the meeting. Based on the presentations and discussions, appropriate actions were then taken by district planning leaders, health workers, health managers and the research team. The district biostatistician and the district health team were responsible for the analysis of routine data collected through the district health management information system, while the Makerere University research team was responsible for the analysis of data collected through additional surveys.

This information was used to develop a Theory of Change. The Theory of Change enabled the research team members to clarify not only the ultimate outcomes and impacts they hoped to achieve, but also the avenues through which they expected to achieve them.

This helped the research team and the local stakeholders build consensus on the implementation pathways. More details about the Theory of Change and how it was used are available in Paina et al. Quantitative information was collected through household surveys, health facility support supervision visits, health information utilisation data and reports from the community health workers.

The main outcomes for LQAS household surveys were changes in facility deliveries, ANC attendance, birth preparedness practices, and knowledge of birth preparedness, pregnancy, labour and newborn danger signs.

Every quarter, we randomly selected five villages as supervision areas in each district supervision units , from which we randomly sampled 19 eligible households for assessment.

A team of five district-based persons government employees , who included the biostatistician and health management information system focal person, collected the data. A team of trained research assistants with support from a qualitative research specialist from Makerere University collected qualitative data through focus group discussions, key informant interviews and quarterly review meetings at district and sub-county level.

We conducted focus group discussions with men and women in rich and poor communities and in locations that were considered hard to reach and easily accessible. These areas were selected by members from the district health office [ 20 ]. The key informant interviews were conducted with community leaders, district health management team members and health providers [ 20 ]. We used a modified version of the most significant change approach to help us track the most significant changes experienced by the health providers and the community during the implementation phase [ 27 ] Fig.

We did this by collecting stories of change during focus group discussions with the community, key informant interviews with health providers and local leaders, and meetings quarterly meetings, health workers symposia and research team meetings. The PIPA workshop was conducted in the first and second year of implementation. Details about how it was conducted are available in Ekirapa-Kiracho et al.

We used PIPA to analyse the type, role and strength of each stakeholder, as well as how they were connected with one another in the context of maternal and newborn services. This helped the project team to understand the actors in MNH, the resources that they possessed, as well as the power and influence that they had in promoting achievement of the project objectives.

During the design phase of the programme we held focus group discussions and stakeholder meetings with local members of the communities. The purpose of these discussions were to identify local problems and feasible solutions as well as the existing local resources, including existing infrastructure and governance structures, human and financial resources.

Through the discussions we were able to identify the problems that affect MNH services in three main areas, including birth preparedness, transport and quality of MNH care services in the health facilities. The problems related to birth preparedness included lack of awareness of its importance, negative cultural practices, men neglecting their roles, lack of knowledge about family planning, poor saving culture and poverty.

The transport problems included absence of ambulances, long distances to health units, lack of appropriate transport vehicles and high transport fares. This information was used to identify the interventions that were implemented.

For instance, to address the challenge of low awareness about the importance of birth preparedness, home visits by community health workers were suggested and later included as one of the key interventions. To address poor managerial and technical skills, refresher training for health workers was proposed and provided as one of the interventions for health system strengthening.

The local resources identified included existing infrastructure and governance structures such as the sub-county committee, community development office, local transport associations, VHTs and savings groups. The sub-county committee was given the responsibility of supervising the quarterly community dialogues that were held at every village. The community development office was able to provide technical support to the saving groups when we realised that most of them had managerial problems and lacked the basic documentation that was required for their efficient functionality.

During the implementation phase, we shared information about uptake of the intervention elements and progress with implementation of the intervention with the community level stakeholders.

Data from the household surveys provided information about the uptake of various aspects of the intervention. For example, in some of the hard-to-reach areas, newborn deaths were high and most of the women were delivering at home with assistance from traditional birth attendants. Data collected from community health workers also helped the research team and district health office capture the number of newborn deaths and maternal deaths more completely and accurately. Previously, the district only had data from the facility, which reflected a much smaller number of maternal and newborn deaths.

The main factors included delays in deciding to seek care and inadequate care at the health facilities, with delays in deciding to refer mothers at the health facilities. Some of the problems that had been identified during the problem identification phase were still present even at the design phase of the study.

Their persistence during the intervention showed that more attention needed to be given to addressing them. These issues were then brought to the attention of local leaders, health providers, including VHTs, and district planners in the community.

For example, through the community dialogues, we emphasised the importance of delivering in health facilities and preparing for birth by saving money so that transport could be availed in case a mother was referred to a more specialised facility. As a result, women started saving with the saving groups and some groups bought their own boda bodas, which they started using to transport the members of the groups at subsidised costs and sometimes for free. Initially, the community used to save mainly to meet their needs during festive seasons such as Christmas or for burial.

7 monitoring and 10 evaluation types to boost your M&E strategy

If that sounds familiar then this guide is for you. You need to know why the program was created, what the goals are, and how the goals will be achieved. You also need to know what all the activities, outputs and outcomes are. The first step is to decide which indicators you will use to measure the success of your program. This is a very important step, so you should try to involve as many people as possible to get different perspectives. You need to choose indicators for each level of your program — outputs, outcomes and goals. There can be more than one indicator for each level, although you should try to keep the total number of indicators manageable.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Casley Published Engineering. Because of the need to monitor the implementation of agricultural projects and to evaluate their achievements, these activities are now a routine part of project appraisal. This book details the concepts of monitoring and evaluation of agricultural and rural development projects. In the early s, several international agricultural development agencies recognized the problems in formulating effective agricultural monitoring and evaluation systems.

what is project monitoring and evaluation pdf

The results of the research are management commitment and availability of procedure implementation monitoring and evaluation are suggested to improve the.

How to create a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system – step-by-step guide

Metrics details. Sharing this information with key stakeholders prompted them to take appropriate actions. For example, the sub-county leadership constructed placenta disposal pits, the district health officer provided fuel for ambulances, and health workers received refresher training and mentorship on how to care for newborns.

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Abrahams, Naeema. Australian Agency for International Development. Basile, Kathleen C. Hertz and Sudie E. February

7 monitoring and 10 evaluation types to boost your M&E strategy

Its goal is to improve current and future management of outputs, outcomes and impact.

References for Monitoring and Evaluation

Robust monitoring and evaluation enable SGP as an accountable, evidence-based thought leader with integrated results management at all levels of operation, and informs effective and efficient programme decision-making. The total number of grant projects under implementation were 3, projects, reflecting grant value of USD Among those, a cohort of GEF-financed small grant projects were completed and reported results. Small Grants Programme Annual Monitoring Report - This is the annual monitoring report that captures the results of the completed projects during the reporting period.

Вой сирен вывел его из задумчивости. Его аналитический ум искал выход из создавшегося положения. Сознание нехотя подтверждало то, о чем говорили чувства. Оставался только один выход, одно решение. Он бросил взгляд на клавиатуру и начал печатать, даже не повернув к себе монитор.

 Ты уходишь. - Ты же знаешь, что я бы осталась, - сказала она, задержавшись в дверях, - но у меня все же есть кое-какая гордость. Я просто не желаю играть вторую скрипку - тем более по отношению к подростку. - Моя жена вовсе не подросток, - возмутился Бринкерхофф.  - Она просто так себя ведет. Мидж посмотрела на него с удивлением. - Я вовсе не имела в виду твою жену.

Available from: Page 6. P Project Planning and Management. Unit © SOAS. CeDEP. 4.


Он посмотрел на Сьюзан, стоявшую рядом с ним на платформе. Казалось, все происходящее было от нее безумно. Джабба вздохнул и снова вытер пот со лба. По выражению его лица было ясно: то, что он собирается сказать, не понравится директору и остальным. - Этот червь, - начал он, - не обычный переродившийся цикл. Это избирательный цикл.

Черный экран. Хейл бросил взгляд на коммандера и Сьюзан, затем достал из кармана бумажник, извлек из него крохотную каталожную карточку и прочитал то, что было на ней написано. Еще раз убедившись, что Сьюзан и коммандер поглощены беседой, Хейл аккуратно нажал пять клавиш на клавиатуре ее компьютера, и через секунду монитор вернулся к жизни. - Порядок, - усмехнулся. Завладеть персональными кодами компьютеров Третьего узла было проще простого. У всех терминалов были совершенно одинаковые клавиатуры.

Стратмор стукнул кулаком по столу. - Я должен был знать. Да взять хотя бы его электронное имя.  - Боже мой, Северная Дакота. Сокращенно NDAKOTA.

Сьюзан в ужасе смотрела на экран. Внизу угрожающе мигала команда: ВВЕДИТЕ КЛЮЧ Вглядываясь в пульсирующую надпись, она поняла .

 - Она надулась.  - Если не скажешь, тебе меня больше не видать. - Врешь. Она ударила его подушкой. - Рассказывай.

Я сказала, что нашла его в парке. Я думала, что она мне заплатит, но ничего не вышло. Ну, мне было все равно. Я просто хотела от него избавиться. - Когда вы отдали ей кольцо.

Он начал подписывать свои записки Любовь без воска, Дэвид. Таких посланий она получила больше двух десятков. И все был подписаны одинаково: Любовь без воска. Она просила его открыть скрытый смысл этих слов, но Дэвид отказывался и только улыбался: Из нас двоих ты криптограф. Главный криптограф АНБ испробовала все - подмену букв, шифровальные квадраты, даже анаграммы.

How to Develop a Monitoring and Evaluation Plan

Его так все называют. Им пользуются студенты, потому что билет стоит гроши. Сиди себе в заднем салоне и докуривай окурки.

Говорили, что от него уходит жена, с которой он прожил лет тридцать. А в довершение всего - Цифровая крепость, величайшая опасность, нависшая над разведывательной службой. И со всем этим ему приходится справляться в одиночку.

Отказ Джаббы использовать данную услугу был его личным ответом на требование АН Б о том, чтобы он всегда был доступен по мобильному телефону. Чатрукьян повернулся и посмотрел в пустой зал шифровалки. Шум генераторов внизу с каждой минутой становился все громче.

 Was tust du. Что вы делаете. Беккер понял, что перегнул палку. Он нервно оглядел коридор. Его уже выставили сегодня из больницы, и он не хотел, чтобы это случилось еще .

Джабба вздохнул и положил фонарик рядом с. - Мидж, во-первых, там есть резервное электроснабжение. Так что полной тьмы быть не .

 А у вас здесь… - Беккер не сдержал смешка. - Да. Это очень важная часть! - заявил лейтенант.

Причиной этого стала любовь, но не. Еще и собственная глупость. Он отдал Сьюзан свой пиджак, а вместе с ним - Скайпейджер. Теперь уже окаменел Стратмор.

 - Похоже, Стратмор здорово промыл тебе мозги. Ты отлично знаешь, что ФБР не может прослушивать телефонные разговоры произвольно: для этого они должны получить ордер. Этот новый стандарт шифрования означал бы, что АНБ может прослушивать кого угодно, где угодно и когда угодно. - Ты прав - и так и должно быть! - сурово отрезала Сьюзан.  - Если бы ты не нашел черный ход в Попрыгунчике, мы могли бы взломать любой шифр, вместо того чтобы полагаться на ТРАНСТЕКСТ.

Очень уместно, - мысленно застонал.  - Сюрреализм.

 Я знал, что он меня не слушает. Вот так и рождаются слухи. Я сказал ему, что японец отдал свое кольцо - но не .

Он ненавидел американцев. Ненавидел американскую еду, американские нравы, но более всего ему было ненавистно то, что американцы железной хваткой держали мировой рынок компьютерных программ. У Стратмора был смелый план - создать всемирный стандарт шифрования с черным ходом для Агентства национальной безопасности. Он страстно желал разделить эту мечту со Сьюзан, осуществить ее с ней вместе, но знал, что это невозможно.

В горле нестерпимо горело. Все вокруг светилось ярко-красными огнями. Шифровалка умирала. То же самое будет и со мной, - подумала .

Человек, к которому он направил Росио. Странно, подумал он, что сегодня вечером уже второй человек интересуется этим немцем. - Мистер Густафсон? - не удержался от смешка Ролдан.


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    It also provides an iterative management tool for project implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Logframe analysis begins with problem analysis followed by.

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