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List Of Monocot And Dicot Plants Pdf

list of monocot and dicot plants pdf

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Difference Between Monocotyledons (monocots) and Dicotyledons (dicots)

They constitute one of the major groups into which the flowering plants have traditionally been divided, the rest of the flowering plants having two cotyledons and therefore classified as dicotyledons , or dicots. Monocotyledons have almost always been recognized as a group, but with various taxonomic ranks and under several different names.

The monocotyledons include about 60, species. The largest family in this group and in the flowering plants as a whole by number of species are the orchids family Orchidaceae , with more than 20, species.

About half as many species belong to the true grasses Poaceae , which are economically the most important family of monocotyledons. Often mistaken for grasses, sedges are also monocots. In agriculture the majority of the biomass produced comes from monocotyledons.

These include not only major grains rice , wheat , maize , etc. Other economically important monocotyledon crops include various palms Arecaceae , bananas and plantains Musaceae , gingers and their relatives, turmeric and cardamom Zingiberaceae , asparagus Asparagaceae , pineapple Bromeliaceae , sedges Cyperaceae and rushes Juncaceae , and leeks , onion and garlic Amaryllidaceae. Many houseplants are monocotyledon epiphytes.

Additionally most of the horticultural bulbs , plants cultivated for their blooms, such as lilies , daffodils , irises , amaryllis , cannas , bluebells and tulips , are monocotyledons. The monocots or monocotyledons have, as the name implies, a single mono- cotyledon , or embryonic leaf, in their seeds. Historically, this feature was used to contrast the monocots with the dicotyledons or dicots which typically have two cotyledons; however modern research has shown that the dicots are not a natural group, and the term can only be used to indicate all angiosperms that are not monocots and is used in that respect here.

From a diagnostic point of view the number of cotyledons is neither a particularly useful characteristic as they are only present for a very short period in a plant's life , nor is it completely reliable. The single cotyledon is only one of a number of modifications of the body plan of the ancestral monocotyledons, whose adaptive advantages are poorly understood, but may have been related to adaption to aquatic habitats , prior to radiation to terrestrial habitats.

Nevertheless, monocots are sufficiently distinctive that there has rarely been disagreement as to membership of this group, despite considerable diversity in terms of external morphology. Thus monocots are distinguishable from other angiosperms both in terms of their uniformity and diversity.

On the one hand the organisation of the shoots, leaf structure and floral configuration are more uniform than in the remaining angiosperms, yet within these constraints a wealth of diversity exists, indicating a high degree of evolutionary success. The most important distinction is their growth pattern, lacking a lateral meristem cambium that allows for continual growth in diameter with height secondary growth , and therefore this characteristic is a basic limitation in shoot construction.

Although largely herbaceous, some arboraceous monocots reach great height, length and mass. The latter include agaves , palms , pandans , and bamboos. Some, such as species of Yucca , develop anomalous secondary growth, while palm trees utilise an anomalous primary growth form described as establishment growth see Vascular system. The axis undergoes primary thickening, that progresses from internode to internode, resulting in a typical inverted conical shape of the basal primary axis see Tillich, Figure 1.

The limited conductivity also contributes to limited branching of the stems. Despite these limitations a wide variety of adaptive growth forms has resulted Tillich, Figure 2 from epiphytic orchids Asparagales and bromeliads Poales to submarine Alismatales including the reduced Lemnoideae and mycotrophic Burmanniaceae Dioscreales and Triuridaceae Pandanales.

Other forms of adaptation include the climbing vines of Araceae Alismatales which use negative phototropism skototropism to locate host trees i. The cotyledon, the primordial Angiosperm leaf consists of a proximal leaf base or hypophyll and a distal hyperphyll. In monocots the hypophyll tends to be the dominant part in contrast to other angiosperms.

From these, considerable diversity arises. Mature monocot leaves are generally narrow and linear, forming a sheathing around the stem at its base, although there are many exceptions. Leaf venation is of the striate type, mainly arcuate-striate or longitudinally striate parallel , less often palmate-striate or pinnate-striate with the leaf veins emerging at the leaf base and then running together at the apices. There is usually only one leaf per node because the leaf base encompasses more than half the circumference.

The lack of cambium in the primary root limits its ability to grow sufficiently to maintain the plant. This necessitates early development of roots derived from the shoot adventitious roots. In addition to roots, monocots develop runners and rhizomes , which are creeping shoots.

Runners serve vegetative propagation , have elongated internodes , run on or just below the surface of the soil and in most case bear scale leaves. Rhizomes frequently have an additional storage function and rhizome producing plants are considered geophytes Tillich, Figure Other geophytes develop bulbs , a short axial body bearing leaves whose bases store food. Additional outer non-storage leaves may form a protective function Tillich, Figure Other storage organs may be tubers or corms , swollen axes.

Tubers may form at the end of underground runners and persist. Corms are short lived vertical shoots with terminal inflorescences and shrivel once flowering has occurred. However, intermediate forms may occur such as in Crocosmia Asparagales. Some monocots may also produce shoots that grow directly down into the soil, these are geophilous shoots Tillich, Figure 11 that help overcome the limited trunk stability of large woody monocots.

In nearly all cases the perigone consists of two alternating trimerous whorls of tepals , being homochlamydeous , without differentiation between calyx and corolla. In zoophilous pollinated by animals taxa, both whorls are corolline petal-like. Anthesis the period of flower opening is usually fugacious short lived.

Some of the more persistent perigones demonstrate thermonastic opening and closing responsive to changes in temperature. About two thirds of monocots are zoophilous , predominantly by insects. These plants need to advertise to pollinators and do so by way of phaneranthous showy flowers. Such optical signalling is usually a function of the tepal whorls but may also be provided by semaphylls other structures such as filaments , staminodes or stylodia which have become modified to attract pollinators.

However, some monocot plants may have aphananthous inconspicuous flowers and still be pollinated by animals. In these the plants rely either on chemical attraction or other structures such as coloured bracts fulfill the role of optical attraction. In some phaneranthous plants such structures may reinforce floral structures.

The production of fragrances for olfactory signalling are common in monocots. The perigone also functions as a landing platform for pollinating insects.

The embryo consists of a single cotyledon, usually with two vascular bundles. The traditionally listed differences between monocots and dicots are as follows. This is a broad sketch only, not invariably applicable, as there are a number of exceptions. The differences indicated are more true for monocots versus eudicots.

A number of these differences are not unique to the monocots, and, while still useful, no one single feature will infallibly identify a plant as a monocot. Broad leaves and reticulate leaf veins, features typical of dicots, are found in a wide variety of monocot families: for example, Trillium , Smilax greenbriar , Pogonia an orchid , and the Dioscoreales yams. Other plants exhibit a mixture of characteristics.

Nymphaeaceae water lilies have reticulate veins, a single cotyledon, adventitious roots, and a monocot-like vascular bundle. These examples reflect their shared ancestry.

Monocot apomorphies characteristics derived during radiation rather than inherited from an ancestral form include herbaceous habit, leaves with parallel venation and sheathed base, an embryo with a single cotyledon, an atactostele , numerous adventitious roots, sympodial growth, and trimerous 3 parts per whorl flowers that are pentacyclic 5 whorled with 3 sepals, 3 petals, 2 whorls of 3 stamens each, and 3 carpels.

In contrast, monosulcate pollen is considered an ancestral trait, probably plesiomorphic. The distinctive features of the monocots have contributed to the relative taxonomic stability of the group. Douglas E. Soltis and others [37] [38] [39] [40] identify thirteen synapomorphies shared characteristics that unite monophyletic groups of taxa ;. Monocots have a distinctive arrangement of vascular tissue known as an atactostele in which the vascular tissue is scattered rather than arranged in concentric rings.

Collenchyma is absent in monocot stems, roots and leaves. Many monocots are herbaceous and do not have the ability to increase the width of a stem secondary growth via the same kind of vascular cambium found in non-monocot woody plants.

The monocots form one of five major lineages of mesangiosperms core angiosperms , which in themselves form The monocots and the eudicots , are the largest and most diversified angiosperm radiations accounting for They are also among the dominant members of many plant communities.

The monocots are one of the major divisions of the flowering plants or angiosperms. They have been recognized as a natural group since the sixteenth century when Lobelius , searching for a characteristic to group plants by, decided on leaf form and their venation. He observed that the majority had broad leaves with net-like venation, but a smaller group were grass-like plants with long straight parallel veins.

Formal description dates from John Ray 's studies of seed structure in the 17th century. Ray, who is often considered the first botanical systematist , [48] observed the dichotomy of cotyledon structure in his examination of seeds. The greatest number of plants that come of seed spring at first out of the earth with two leaves which being for the most part of a different figure from the succeeding leaves are by our gardeners not improperly called the seed leaves In the first kind the seed leaves are nothing but the two lobes of the seed having their plain sides clapt together like the two halves of a walnut and therefore are of the just figure of the seed slit in sunder flat wise Of seeds that spring out of the earth with leaves like the succeeding and no seed leaves I have observed two sorts.

Such as are congenerous to the first kind precedent that is whose pulp is divided into two lobes and a radicle Such which neither spring out of the ground with seed leaves nor have their pulp divided into lobes. John Ray , pp. Since this paper appeared a year before the publication of Malpighi 's Anatome Plantarum — , Ray has the priority.

At the time, Ray did not fully realise the importance of his discovery [50] but progressively developed this over successive publications. And since these were in Latin, "seed leaves" became folia seminalia [51] and then cotyledon , following Malpighi.

Marcello Malpighi , p. In this experiment, Malpighi also showed that the cotyledons were critical to the development of the plant, proof that Ray required for his theory.

This approach, also referred to as polythetic would last till evolutionary theory enabled Eichler to develop the phyletic system that superseded it in the late nineteenth century, based on an understanding of the acquisition of characteristics. From this division of the seeds derives a general distinction amongst plants, that in my judgement is first and by far the best, into those seed plants which are bifoliate, or bilobed, and those that are analogous to the adult , that is between monocots and dicots.

Although Linnaeus — did not utilise Ray's discovery, basing his own classification solely on floral reproductive morphology , the term was used shortly after his classification appeared by Scopoli and who is credited for its introduction. Monocotyledons remained in a similar position as a major division of the flowering plants throughout the nineteenth century, with minor variations.

Taxonomists had considerable latitude in naming this group, as the Monocotyledons were a group above the rank of family. Article 16 of the ICBN allows either a descriptive name or a name formed from the name of an included family. Over the s, a more general review of the classification of angiosperms was undertaken.

examples of dicot vegetables

Open Mobile Menu. Dicots exhibit secondary growth, which is the ability to increase their diameter via the production of wood and bark. They are fatter than true leaves. More often than not, dicot seed pods contain more seeds than a monocot seed pod. Within the kingdom of plants, those plants with seeds are divided into gymnosperm and angiosperms. The structure of monocot and dicot stem is quite different from each other. In fact, all true trees that have wood and bark are dicots, including maple trees, apple trees, and sycamores.

list of monocot and dicot plants pdf

or monocots, have one seed leaf and the dicotyledons or dicots have two seed Look at the list of monocot plants and circle the ones you like.


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They constitute one of the major groups into which the flowering plants have traditionally been divided, the rest of the flowering plants having two cotyledons and therefore classified as dicotyledons , or dicots. Monocotyledons have almost always been recognized as a group, but with various taxonomic ranks and under several different names. The monocotyledons include about 60, species. The largest family in this group and in the flowering plants as a whole by number of species are the orchids family Orchidaceae , with more than 20, species.

The actual basis for distinguishing the two classes of angiosperms is the number of cotyledons found in the embryo, and is the source of the names Monocotyledonae one cotyledon and Dicotyledonae two cotyledons.

Difference Between Monocot and Dicots

Dicot plants can also have bark and secondary growth increases the diameter girth of the plant. What are some examples of dicot plants? Herbaceous plants lack woody stems and are classified as annuals, biennials, and perennials. Roots in dicots are often fibrous and branched. Would you like to write for us?

The seed in the plant having one cotyledon is called as the monocotyledon , while the seed in the plant having two cotyledons is named as the dicotyledon. Ginger, banana, wheat, maize, palm, onion, garlic are few examples of monocotyledonous plants, while rose, groundnut, potato, tomato, pea, eucalyptus, hibiscus are the examples of dicotyledonous plants. Knowing the family of a plant is useful in many ways, as it helps us to know many factors about plant and how will it germinate, what kind of seed it is and what are the requirements of it to grow, etc. Among the various family of plants, monocots and dicots belong to the most diversified and occupied family which are Angiosperms.


PDF | by Lakna • 7 min read 0 Main Difference – Monocot vs Dicot Monocot and dicot are the two lineages of plants found in angiosperms. Dicot: Legumes, tomato, and oak are the examples of dicots.


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This section describes the structure of dicotyledonous roots and stems, followed by a description of the structure of the cells in the different tissues. Learners can use microscopes or photomicrographs to observe and draw cross sections of the root and stem. Slides can be made from celery or pumpkin stalks to view xylem tissue and secondary thickening patterns.

Monocotyledon

Plants can be separated into two distinct categories: monocots and dicots.

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