File Name: iron and steelmaking by ahindra ghosh .zip
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In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen , silicon , phosphorus , sulfur and excess carbon most important impurity are removed from the sourced iron, and alloying elements such as manganese , nickel , chromium , carbon and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel. Limiting dissolved gases such as nitrogen and oxygen and entrained impurities termed "inclusions" in the steel is also important to ensure the quality of the products cast from the liquid steel.
Steelmaking has existed for millennia, but it was not commercialized on a massive scale until the late 14th century. An ancient process of steelmaking was the crucible process. In the s and s, the Bessemer process and the Siemens-Martin process turned steelmaking into a heavy industry.
Today there are two major commercial processes for making steel, namely basic oxygen steelmaking , which has liquid pig-iron from the blast furnace and scrap steel as the main feed materials, and electric arc furnace EAF steelmaking, which uses scrap steel or direct reduced iron DRI as the main feed materials.
In recent times, EAF steelmaking technology has evolved closer to oxygen steelmaking as more chemical energy is introduced into the process. Steelmaking has played a crucial role in the development of ancient, medieval, and modern technological societies.
Early processes of steel making were made during the classical era in Ancient Iran , Ancient China , India , and Rome but the process of ancient steelmaking was lost in the West after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century CE. Cast iron is a hard, brittle material that is difficult to work, whereas steel is malleable, relatively easily formed and a versatile material. For much of human history, steel has only been made in small quantities.
Since the invention of the Bessemer process in the 19th century and subsequent technological developments in injection technology and process control , mass production of steel has become an integral part of the global economy and a key indicator of modern technological development.
Early modern methods of producing steel were often labour-intensive and highly skilled arts. An important aspect of the Industrial Revolution was the development of large-scale methods of producing forgeable metal bar iron or steel.
The puddling furnace was initially a means of producing wrought iron but was later applied to steel production. The real revolution in modern steelmaking only began at the end of the s when the Bessemer process became the first successful method of steelmaking in high quantity followed by the open-hearth furnace.
Primary steelmaking involves converting liquid iron from a blast furnace and steel scrap into steel via basic oxygen steelmaking , or melting scrap steel or direct reduced iron DRI in an electric arc furnace. Secondary steelmaking involves refining of the crude steel before casting and the various operations are normally carried out in ladles. In secondary metallurgy, alloying agents are added, dissolved gases in the steel are lowered, and inclusions are removed or altered chemically to ensure that high-quality steel is produced after casting.
Basic oxygen steelmaking is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbon-rich molten pig iron is converted into steel. Blowing oxygen through molten pig iron lowers the carbon content of the alloy and changes it into steel.
The process is known as basic due to the chemical nature of the refractories — calcium oxide and magnesium oxide —that line the vessel to withstand the high temperature and corrosive nature of the molten metal and slag in the vessel. The slag chemistry of the process is also controlled to ensure that impurities such as silicon and phosphorus are removed from the metal.
The process was developed in by Robert Durrer , using a refinement of the Bessemer converter where blowing of air is replaced with blowing oxygen. It reduced the capital cost of the plants and the time of smelting, and increased labor productivity. Between and , labour requirements in the industry decreased by a factor of , from more than 3 man-hours per tonne to just 0.
Modern furnaces will take a charge of iron of up to tons and convert it into steel in less than 40 minutes compared to 10—12 hours in an open hearth furnace. Electric arc furnace steelmaking is the manufacture of steel from scrap or direct reduced iron melted by electric arcs.
In an electric arc furnace, a batch of steel "heat" may be started by loading scrap or direct reduced iron into the furnace, sometimes with a "hot heel" molten steel from a previous heat. Gas burners may be used to assist with the melt down of the scrap pile in the furnace.
As in basic oxygen steelmaking, fluxes are also added to protect the lining of the vessel and help improve the removal of impurities. Electric arc furnace steelmaking typically uses furnaces of capacity around tonnes that produce steel every 40 to 50 minutes for further processing. Secondary steelmaking is most commonly performed in ladles.
Some of the operations performed in ladles include de-oxidation or "killing" , vacuum degassing, alloy addition, inclusion removal, inclusion chemistry modification, de-sulphurisation, and homogenisation. It is now common to perform ladle metallurgical operations in gas-stirred ladles with electric arc heating in the lid of the furnace. Tight control of ladle metallurgy is associated with producing high grades of steel in which the tolerances in chemistry and consistency are narrow.
In HIsarna ironmaking process, iron ore is processed almost directly into liquid iron or hot metal. The process is based around a type of blast furnace called a cyclone converter furnace , which makes it possible to skip the process of manufacturing pig iron pellets that is necessary for the basic oxygen steelmaking process. Without the necessity of this preparatory step, the HIsarna process is more energy-efficient and has a lower carbon footprint than traditional steelmaking processes.
As of [update] steelmaking is estimated to be responsible for 7 to 9 per cent of all direct fossil fuel greenhouse gas emissions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Process for producing steel from iron ore and scrap. Main articles: Basic oxygen steelmaking and Electric arc furnace.
Main article: HIsarna ironmaking process. Fundamentals of Steelmaking Metallurgy. New York : Prentice Hall International.
Fundamentals of Steelmaking. London : Institute of Materials. Breaking Away from the Textbook: Prehistory to Scarecrow Press Inc. August New York : Arcade Publishing. December 13, Boca Raton , Fla. Pittsburgh : AIST. Retrieved Iron and steel production.
History of ferrous metallurgy List of steel producers. Bloomery produces sponge iron Blast furnace produces pig iron Cold blast Hot blast Anthracite iron Direct reduced iron. Pattern welding Crucible steel Damascus steel Tatara furnace Cementation process.
Bessemer process Open hearth furnace Electric arc furnace Basic oxygen process. Electro-slag remelting Vacuum arc remelting Argon oxygen decarburization. Low hydrogen Short circuit. Austempering Martempering. Authority control GND : Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Articles containing potentially dated statements from All articles containing potentially dated statements Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Smelting Bloomery produces sponge iron Blast furnace produces pig iron Cold blast Hot blast Anthracite iron Direct reduced iron.
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Ironmaking And Steelmaking: Theory And Practice by Ahindra Ghosh And Amit Chatterjee is a complete reference text material on metallurgy, the process of making iron and steel, primarily intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students of engineering. Ironmaking And Steelmaking: Theory And Practice is a book for the benefit of engineering graduates and postgraduates.
In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen , silicon , phosphorus , sulfur and excess carbon most important impurity are removed from the sourced iron, and alloying elements such as manganese , nickel , chromium , carbon and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel. Limiting dissolved gases such as nitrogen and oxygen and entrained impurities termed "inclusions" in the steel is also important to ensure the quality of the products cast from the liquid steel. Steelmaking has existed for millennia, but it was not commercialized on a massive scale until the late 14th century. An ancient process of steelmaking was the crucible process. In the s and s, the Bessemer process and the Siemens-Martin process turned steelmaking into a heavy industry.
Save extra with 2 Offers. It begins by tracing the history of iron and steel production, right from the earlier days to todays world of oxygen steelmaking, electric steelmaking, secondary steelmaking and continuous casting. The physicochemical fundamental concepts of chemical equilibrium, activity-composition relationships, and structure-properties of molten metals are introduced before going into details of transport phenomena, i. Particular emphasis is laid on the understanding of the fundamental principles of the processes and their application to the optimisation of actual processes.
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