File Name: kinetic investigations of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions on lead ruthenate catalysts .zip
In this study, we report that the correlation between the calcination temperature and the bifunctional catalytic activity of BRO in a KOH aqueous solution. The characterization was carried out by synchrotron XRD and temperature-programmed reduction technique. It was found that the oxygen contents of BRO decreased with rising the calcination temperature. The catalytic behavior of BRO towards ORR and OER was evaluated by hydrodynamic voltammetry using a rotating disk electrode and a rotating ring-disk electrode technique. The results of this study suggest that the oxygen content of BRO is one of the factors that determine the catalytic activity for the oxygen electrode reactions. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
The design of active and stable electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction is a key enabling step toward efficient utilization of renewable energy. Along with efforts to develop high-performance electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction, pyrochlore oxides have emerged as highly active and stable materials that function as catalysts as well as conductive supports for hybrid catalysts. The compositional flexibility of pyrochlore oxide provides many opportunities to improve electrocatalytic performance by manipulating material structures and properties. In this Outlook, we first discuss the recent advances in developing metallic pyrochlore oxides as oxygen evolution catalysts, along with elucidation of their reaction mechanisms, and then introduce an emerging area of using pyrochlore oxides as conductive supports to design hybrid catalysts to further improve the OER activity. Finally, the remaining challenges and emerging opportunities for pyrochlore oxides as electrocatalysts and conductive supports are discussed. This Outlook summarizes recent advances in pyrochlore oxides as oxygen evolution catalysts and introduces a new approach using pyrochlore oxides as a conductive support to design hybrid catalysts.
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By cyclic voltammetry at high scan rates, the electrochemical properties of RuO 2 in acidic and alkaline solutions were investigated in detail. Thirteen current peaks can be distinguished in sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide. With respect to the pH sensitivity of RuO 2 electrodes, we considered charge calculations, peak currents, and apparent diffusion coefficients. The redox activity of platinum metal oxides has been considered for electrolysis, electrochemical storage devices, and pH sensors [ 1 — 4 ]. Ruthenium dioxide electrodes have been studied since the early s because of the mixed electronic and ionic conductivity
Obtaining a clear mechanistic picture of these reactions on some highly active strongly-correlated oxides such as MnO x , NiO x , and IrO x has been challenging due to the inherent limitations of the common spectroscopic tools used for probing the reactive intermediates and active sites. This perspective article briefly summarizes some of the key challenges encountered in such probes and describes some of unique advantages of confocal near-infrared photoluminescence NIR-PL technique for probing surface and bulk metal cation states under in-situ and ex-situ electrochemical polarization studies. Use of this technique opens up a new avenue for studying changes in the electronic structure of metal oxides occurring as a result of perturbation of defect equilibria, which is crucial in a broad range of heterogeneous systems such as catalysis, photocatalysis, mineral redox chemistry, and batteries. Electrocatalytic oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction reactions underpin the efficient operation of many reversible electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices such as solar cells, regenerative fuel cells Adler, ; Gasteiger et al. Consequently, considerable efforts have been dedicated toward improving the energy conversion efficiency of these devices Badwal et al. Oxygen reactions are known to be complex charge transfer processes because they involve multiple proton-coupled electron transfer.
These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. The design of active and stable electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction is a key enabling step toward efficient utilization of renewable energy.
Habereder , K. Waltar , R. E-mail: emiliana.
- Помните, я сказала, что на Нагасаки сбросили плутониевую бомбу. - Да, - ответил дружный хор голосов. - Так вот… - Соши шумно вздохнула. - Похоже, я ошиблась.
Невзламываемый шифр. Но это полный абсурд. Неужели Хейл никогда не слышал о принципе Бергофского.
- И он начал отсчитывать купюры. Глядя, как он шелестит деньгами, Меган вскрикнула и изменилась в лице, по-видимому ложно истолковав его намерения. Она испуганно посмотрела на вращающуюся дверь… как бы прикидывая расстояние. До выхода было метров тридцать. - Я оплачу тебе билет до дома, если… - Молчите, - сказала Меган с кривой улыбкой.
Что это. Стратмор вздохнул: - Двадцать лет назад никто не мог себе представить, что мы научимся взламывать ключи объемом в двенадцать бит. Но технология не стоит на месте.
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