File Name: preservation and conservation of information resources .zip
While some of these resources are in fact intended for museum, library, and archive professionals, in general they do not require a technical background, and should be of use to the lay public. Some of these sites are vendors of products and services and the information offered is intermixed with commercial content.
Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Adefunke Ebijuwa. Thomas Ogunmodede. Of Technology. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Particularly, it examined the overview of preservation and conservation of library resources. It also studied the causes of deterioration of library information resources, among which are: natural aging process, level of use of library materials, inherent chemical content used in the process of paper making, high temperature and fluctuating relative humidity, improper handling of library materials among many others were equally discussed.
Various preventive measures were equally discussed. Different challenges facing preservation and conservation of library resources in African Academic Libraries were presented.
Useful suggestions were also made to ameliorate the situation. Libraries acquire material to meet the informational or recreational needs of its clientele. It is the responsibility of the library staff to keep these materials in good physical condition so that they are available for users at all times. Materials in many libraries and archives throughout the country are still housed in conditions that leave much to be desired Olatokun, A large portion of information recorded on audio or videotape about important events, people, etc.
This is a sad situation and one that is found in many libraries of African higher institutions. The deterioration of information-bearing material has a long history. Unless something is done to stop the process, library collections deteriorate and will continue to deteriorate. This is a battle that has to be waged against to prevent the deterioration of our intellectual heritage.
Preservation is the action taken to anticipate, prevent, stop, or slow deterioration. It can also be described as the art of anticipating and preventing decay Baker, Conservation is an act of preservation, protecting and shielding material from destructive influences that shorten their life span. The library plays a crucial role of protecting and preserving information-bearing materials from distortion, deterioration, and eventual loss because the materials are imperative. Academic libraries acquire information resources to meet the needs of their community.
People use the collections as a result of increasing enrolments in higher education. There are shortages and decline in book budgets arising from the poor funding of the institutions as well as the high cost of books and other information resources.
As a result, the libraries are left with damaged books, distorted tapes, scratched CDs, etc Popoola, The composition of some of the media of storing information makes deterioration inevitable. Deterioration may set in through the natural ageing process or as a result of other factors such as chemical composition of the media of information, biological agents, environmental factors, physical agents and improper handling. There is, therefore, the need to take certain conservation measure to slow down deterioration to avoid losing these library resources.
Conservation involves taking protective measures to prevent decay and consequently, the loss of library resources. It also includes taking preventive measures against agents of deterioration of books and other library resources. While conservation is direct physical intervention arresting or slowing down deterioration of library materials, preservation involves both the direct and indirect action. In preservation consideration is given to every element that promotes the protection of the materials including the housing, storage system and security against such threats as theft, mutilation and poor handling.
Preservation is, therefore, a more embracing concept and it includes conservation. Overview of Preservation and Conservation of Library Information Resources The library has the primary role of acquiring, processing, organizing, preserving as well as conserving the printed and non-printed information resources or materials for the use of their clientele.
Library information resources refer to all those media for storing information such as textbooks, journals, newspapers and magazines, patents and standards, handbooks and manuals, directories, gazetteers, encyclopedias, atlases and maps, calendars and diaries, vertical files, theses and dissertations, tapes, videos, films, optical discs, cassettes, magnetic tapes, microforms, etc.
Similarly, library information resources can simply be defined as book materials, microforms and electronic information materials capable of meeting information needs of the users Popoola, But, library information materials are bound to deteriorate or breakdown with time through the aging process, and to replace them may be difficult and expensive if not practically impossible.
The modern day libraries and information centers are faced with the problem of deterioration of information materials in their holdings. Their information materials have deteriorated to the extent of losing their intellectual contents. It must be noted that thousands of volumes of information materials in most African academic libraries and information centres are either in state of brittleness or disrepair because of preservation problem.
According to the National Library of Australia , one of the major crises facing libraries throughout the world is the rate of deterioration of their collections. Since library materials are composed primarily of organic materials, they are subject to natural deterioration. Some libraries have an important collection of oil paintings, a small collection of objects, and a large collection of photographic materials including negatives, prints, glass negatives and photographic albums.
Unlike museum items that are rarely handled, library materials are meant to be used. They are vital sources of information which cannot be conserved and stored away in an ideal and secure environment to arrest their decay. This is the dilemma of library preservation — to make information accessible, while still ensuring its ultimate survival. As the IFLA-PAC China Centre puts it: the core activity on preservation and conservation is to ensure that significant library and archive materials, published and unpublished, in all formats, will be preserved in accessible form for as long as possible.
Causes of Deterioration Men are unquestionably the greatest enemies of the materials on which they record their thoughts. To the long list of great libraries vandalized by conquering armies or burned in hate, must be added the incalculable loss and damage caused by petty theft, malicious mischief and careless handling by individuals. Improper and faulty actions taken by the library staff may cause deterioration to library materials.
Cheap and improper materials are often used for mending and repairing. Wrong insecticides are used for fumigation, repairing, restoration and lamination work, which are usually done by untrained personnel. And all these conditions cause deterioration or worse, aggravate deterioration of library materials Mahapatra andWamukoya, Edhebe stated that much avoidable damage is done to books by well- meaning but uniformed librarians through the following: 1.
Use of pressure sensitive tapes. Indeterminate use of polyvinyl acetate and other synthetic adhesives. Use of highly acid paper for protective wrappers. Use of wood backing in print, picture and map frames. Amateur lamination. Improper storage. Pressure sensitive tapes are perfectly satisfactory for sealing packages, but should never be used for repairs on anything but the most inexpensive books. At best, these repairs are only temporary and the chemicals in some adhesives soon discolour the paper with a stain that is impossible to remove.
Some tapes now available claim to be non-staining and more permanent but since there is little information available on the materials in these tapes, it would be unwise to use them on anything other than books and papers that are expected to be discarded after a reasonable period of use. Mahapatra and Chakrabarti reported that extravagant claims have been declared by some manufacturers of polyvinyl acetate regarding the alleged capabilities of these materials to transform old books like new.
These white emulsions generously painted on workout books, are claimed to fasten separated covers, consolidate rotted leather and rejuvenate cloth. A very good numbers of fine volumes have been ruined by the improper use of these products. It must be noted that polyvinyl acetate emulsions are good adhesives and nothing more. When used as one would use paste or glue, they make very strong bonds which can rarely be separated without damaging the fastened materials.
Since one of the basic principles of rare book and archive restoration is that nothing shall be done in the restoration that cannot be undone if necessary, these irreversible adhesives should be avoided for all except general library work. According to Mahapatra and Chatevabarti , the following physical and chemical situations are responsible for deterioration of documents, either by one or more.
Natural aging of paper since the major constituents are of organic nature. Such inevitable deterioration can be minimized to a large extent by proper housekeeping. In the manufacturing of paper sometimes fibres are used with low cellulose content or sometimes non- cellulose materials of the lignin type are used by which paper becomes degenerated very easily.
Mineral and chemical compounds used as basic constituents of paper affect the durability of paper. Impurities in the ingredients used as basic constituents of paper cause inevitable deterioration. Presence of acidic sizing materials such as, alum, rosin, etc, causes the acidic effect.
Oxidizing agents present in the constituents of paper make the paper weak, discoloured and disintegrated. Presence of metal accelerates oxidation.
Alkalis used in the manufacture of paper affect it if used in a higher quality. Fungi grow very easily on such paper. Heat and exposure to light make the paper brittle and fade in colour. Dust particles make the paper discoloured, invite chemical impurities and accelerate biological growth. Acidic impurities present in the atmosphere make the paper discoloured and degenerated.
Sulphyric acid is formed from Sulphur dioxide present in the air. Moisture and humidity by which not only the tissues of paper are disintegrated but also conditions are created for biological attack.
Films are very sensitive to excessive heat, dryness, humidity and moisture. Chemicals present in audio-visual materials can cause deterioration under adverse environmental condition.
Because of the basic elements used in the audio or video tape, deterioration is caused for physical and chemical change within the materials under adverse environmental condition.
Thus, the causes of deterioration of library materials may be grouped under three broad categories: natural aging, intrinsic or inherent factors and external condition.
Natural aging indicates the durability of a particular type of library material as physical entity such as various types of paper book binding materials, films, audio-tapes, etc. The ingredients used in the particular material are of good quality, the processes of manufacturing are properly done and no substance is used for any purpose which may cause deterioration in future under any condition, the material will be durable and long-lasting and it can endure adverse conditions.
In such case natural aging with take more time.
The scale of the preservation problem makes the preservation of all original documents impossible. To preserve the information they contain, they can be copied into other formats, including both photographic and digitised media. The professional and technical issues which arise from the practice of format conversion are considered, and the available technologies surveyed. Some current and ongoing projects are discussed and assessed. It is concluded that format conversion is a vital tool for the preservation manager and that it can help librarians to provide better services to users of older materials. Feather, J. Report bugs here.
Good condition of information materials and equipment is crucial to quality service delivery in libraries. The study investigated the preservation and conservation of library resources as correlates of service delivery effectiveness in Universities in South-South, Nigeria. Five research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. Correlational research design was adopted for the study. Three hundred and two professionals and para-professionals constituted the population of the study. Data were analysed, using Mean, standard deviation for research question five, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to answer research question three and multiple regression was used to answer research questions one and two and the corresponding hypotheses at 0. The findings of the study showed that when library resources are properly preserved, service delivery will be hinge-free, better conservation practices will lead to an increase in library service delivery effectiveness in the libraries studied.
Introduction : The library houses the document by considering the long-term preservation of the items while still allowing the end user to access the material easily. But a ll library collections experience damage from use and decay from aging. So, there is a need of preservation and conservation of library materials. Preservation is the task of minimizing or reducing the physical and chemical deterioration of documents. Conservation is the maintenance of documents in a usable condition through treatment and repairs of individual items to slow the process of decay or to restore them to a usable state. Conservat i on includes study, diagnosis, preventive care, examination, treatment, documentation using any methods that may prove effective in keeping that property in as close to its original condition as possible and for as long as possible. The conservation actions are carried out for a variety of reasons including aesthetic choices, stabilization, needs for structural integrity or for cultural requirements for intangible continuity.
Да, конечно, - подтвердил лейтенант. Беккер постоял минуту, уперев руки в бока. Затем поднял коробку, поставил ее на стол и вытряхнул содержимое.
these library resources and the libraries from a colossal loss of her heritage, this study the priceless heritage of mankind as they preserve facts, ideas, thoughts, accomplishments and santaclarapueblolibrary.org
Хейлом овладела паника: повсюду, куда бы он ни посмотрел, ему мерещился ствол беретты Стратмора. Он шарахался из стороны в сторону, не выпуская Сьюзан из рук, стараясь не дать Стратмору возможности выстрелить. Движимый страхом, он поволок Сьюзан к лестнице. Через несколько минут включат свет, все двери распахнутся, и в шифровалку ворвется полицейская команда особого назначения. - Мне больно! - задыхаясь, крикнула Сьюзан.
Чтобы ключ никто не нашел, Танкадо проделал то же самое с Цифровой крепостью. Он спрятал свой ключ, зашифровав его формулой, содержащейся в этом ключе.
Сьюзан плохо его понимала. Ей показалось, что столь своевременная кончина Танкадо решила все проблемы. - Коммандер, - сказала она, - если власти говорят, что он умер от сердечного приступа, это значит, мы к его смерти не причастны. Его партнер поймет, что АНБ не несет за нее ответственности.
Халохот попробовал отклониться влево, но не успел и со всей силы ударился об него голенью. В попытке сохранить равновесие он резко выбросил руки в стороны, но они ухватились за пустоту. Внезапно он взвился в воздух и боком полетел вниз, прямо над Беккером, распростертым на животе с вытянутыми вперед руками, продолжавшими сжимать подсвечник, об который споткнулся Халохот.
- Я хотел сказать… - Чертовщина.
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